WHEN, in August, 1914, war burst suddenly
upon a peaceful world like distant thunder in a cloudless summer sky,
Canada, like the rest of the British Empire, was profoundly startled.
She had been a peace-loving, non-military nation, satisfied to develop
her great natural resources, and live in harmony with her neighbors;
taking little interest in European affairs, Canadians, in fact, were a
typical colonial people, with little knowledge even of the strength of
the ties that linked them to the British Empire.
Upon declaration of war by Great Britain Canada immediately, sprang to
arms. The love of country and empire which had been no obvious tiling
burst forth in a patriotic fervor as deep as it was spontaneous and
genuine. The call to action was answered with an enthusiasm the like of
which had rarely, if ever, been seen in any. British colony.
The Canadian Government called for 20,000 volunteers—-enough for a
single division—as Canada’s contribution to the British army. In less
than a month 40,000 men had volunteered, and the Minister of Militia was
compelled to stop the further enrolment of recruits. From the gold
fields of the Yukon, from the slopes of the Rockies on the west to the
surf-beaten shores of the Atlantic on the east; from workshop and mine;
from farm, office and forest, Canada’s sons trooped to the colors.
It will be the everlasting glory of the men of the first Canadian
contingent, that they needed no spur, either of victory or defeat: they
volunteered because they were quick to perceive that the existence of
their Empire was threatened by the action of the most formidable
nation-in-arms that the world had ever seen. They had been stirred by
the deepest emotion of a race—the love of country,
A site for a concentration camp was chosen at Valcartier, nestling among
the fine Laurentian hills, sixteen miles from Quebec, and convenient to
that point of embarkation. Within four days 6.000 men had arrived at
Valcartier; in another week there were 25.000 men. From centers all over
Canada troop trains, each carrying hundreds of embryo soldiers, sped
towards Valcartier and deposited their burdens on the miles of sidings
that had sprung up as though by magic.
The rapid evolution of that wild and wooded river valley into a model
military camp was a great tribute to the engineering skill and energy of
civilians who had never done the like before. One day an army of woodmen
were seen felling trees; the next day the stumps were tom out and the
hollows filled; on the third day long rows of tents in regular camp
formation covered the ground, and on the fourth day they were occupied
by civilian soldiers concentrated upon learning the rudiments of the art
and science of war.
Streets were laid out; miles of water pipes, sunk in machine-made
ditches, were connected to hundreds of taps and showier baths; electric
light was installed; three miles of rifle butts completed, and in two
weeks the camp was practically finished—the finest camp that the first
Canadians were destined to see. The building of Valcartier camp was
characteristic of the driving power, vision and genius of the Minister
of Militia, General Sir Sam Hughes.
Of the 33,000 men assembled at Valcartier, the great majority were
civilians without any previous training in warfare. About 7.000
Canadians had taken part in the South African war, fifteen years before,
and some of these, together with a few ex-regulars who had seen active
sendee, were formed into the Princess Patricia’s Light Infantry.
Otherwise, with the exception of the 3,000 regulars to be formed the
standing army of Canada, the men and most of the officers were amateurs.
It was therefore a feat that the Canadian people could well afford to be
proud of, that in the great crisis they were able, through their
aggressive Minister of Militia, not only to gather up these forces so
quickly but that they willingly and without delay converted their
industries to the manufacture of all necessary army equipment. Factories
all over the country immediately began turning out vast quantities of
khaki cloth, uniforms, boots, ammunition, harness, wagons, and the
thousand and one articles necessary for an army.
Before the end of September, 1914, the Canadian Expeditionary Force had
been roughly hewn into shape, battalions had been regrouped and
remodeled, officers transferred and re-transferred, intensive training
earned on, and all the necessary equipment assembled. On October 3,
1914, thirty-three Atlantic liners, carrying the contingent of 33,000
men, comprising infantry, artillery, cavalry, engineers, signalers,
medical corps, array service supply and ammunition columns, together
with horses, guns, ammunition, wagons, motor lorries and other
essentials, sailed from Gaspe basin on the Quebec seaboard to the
battle-field of Europe.
It was probably the largest convoy that had ever been gathered together.
This modern armada in three long lines, each line one and one-half miles
apart, led by cruisers and with battleships on the front, rear and
either flank, presented a thrilling spectacle. The voyage proved
uneventful, and on October 14th, the convoy steamed into Plymouth,
receiving an extraordinary ovation by the sober English people, who
seemed temporarily to have gone wild with enthusiasm. Back of that
demonstration was the conviction that blood had proved thicker than
water and that the apparently flimsy ties that bound the colonies to the
empire were bonds that were unbreakable. The German conviction that the
British colonies would fall away and the British Empire disintegrate
upon the outbreak of a great war had proved fallacious. It was,
moreover, a great demonstration of how the much-vaunted German navy had
already been swept from the seas and rendered impotent hy the might of
A few days later the Canadians had settled down on Salisbury Plain in
southern England for the further course of training necessary before
proceeding to France. There, for nearly four months in the cold and the
wet, In the fog and mud, in crowded, dripping tents and under constantly
dripping skies, they carried on and early gave evidence of their powers
of endurance and unquenchable spirit.
Lord Roberts made his last public appearance before this division and
addressing the men said in part: "Three months ago we found ourselves
involved in this war—a war not of our own seeking, but one winch those
who have studied Germany's literature and Germany’s aspirations, knew
was a war which we should inevitably have to deal with sooner or later.
The prompt resolve of Canada to give us such valuable assistance has
touched us deeply.
“We are fighting a nation which looks upon the British Empire as a
barrier to her development, and has in consequence, long contemplated
our overthrow and humiliation. To attain that end she has manufactured a
magnificent fighting machine, and is straining every nerve to gain
victory. . . It is only by the most determined efforts that we can
And this superb German military organization, created by years of
tireless effort, was that which Canadian civilians had volunteered to
fight. Was it any wonder that some of the most able leaders doubted
whether men and officers, no matter how brave and intelligent, could
ever equal the inspired barbarians who, even at that very moment, were
battling with the finest British and French regulars and pressing them
steadily towards Paris.
In a short chapter of this kind attempting to deal with Canada’s effort
in the great war it is obviously impossible to go into detail or give
more than the briefest of historical pictures. Consequently much that is
fascinating can be given but a passing glance: for greater detail larger
works must be consulted. Nevertheless it is well to try and view in
perspective events as they occurred, in order to obtain some idea of
their relative importance.
In February, 1915, the first Canadian division crossed the Channel to
France, and began to obtain front-line experiences in a section of the
line just north of Neuve Chapelle.
While the first division had been going through its course of training
in England a second division had been raised in Canada and arrived in
England shortly after the first left it.
During that period the conflict in Europe had passed through eertain
preliminary phases—most of them fortunate for the Allies. The unexpected
holding up of the German armies by the Belgians had prevented the enemy
from gaining the channel ports of Calais and Boulogne in the first rush.
Later on the battle of the Marne had resulted in the rolling back of the
German waves until they had subsided on a line roughly drawn through
Dixmude, Ypres, Armentieres, La Bassee, Lens, and southward to the
French border and the trench phase of warfare had begun.
ON VIMY RIDGE, WHERE CANADA WON LAURELS
The Canadians took the important position
of Vimy Ridge on Easter Monday, April 9, 1917. They advanced with
brilliance, having taken the whole system of German front-line .trenches
hetween dawn and 6.30 a. m. This shows squads of machine gunners
operating from shell-craters in support of the infantry on the plateau
above the ridge.
Photo from Western Newspaper Union
GENERAL SIR ARTHUR CURRIE
Commander of the Canadian forces on the Western Front
The British held the section of front
between Ypres and La-B&ssee, ah out thirty miles in length, the Germans,
unfortunately, occupying all the higher grounds.
Shortly after the arrival of the Canadian division the British,
concentrating the largest number of guns that had hitherto heen gathered
together on the French front, made an attack on the Germans at Neuve
Cliapelle. This attack, only partially successful in gains of terrain,
served to teach both belligerents several lessons. It showed the British
the need for huge quantities of high explosives with which to blast away
wire and trenches and, that in an attack, rifle fire, no matter how
accurate, was no match for unlimited numbers of machine guns.
It showed the enemy what could be done with concentrated artillery
fire—a lesson that he availed himself of with deadly effect a few weeks
Though Canadian artillery took part in that bombardment the infantry was
not engaged in the battle of Neuve Chapelle; it received its baptism of
fire, however, under excellent conditions, and after a month’s
experience iri trench warfare was taken out of the line for rest.
The division was at the time under the command of a British general and
the staff included several highly trained British staff officers.
Nevertheless the commands were practically all in the hands of
Canadians—lawyers, business men, real-estate agents, newspapermen and
other amateur soldiers, who, in civilian life as militiamen, had spent
more or less time in the study of the theory of warfare. This should
always be kept in mind in view of subsequent events, as well as the fact
that these amateur soldiers were faced hy armies whose officers and
men—professionals in the art and science of warfare—regarded themselves
In mid-April the Canadians took over a sector some five thousand yards
long in the Ypres salient. On the left they joined up with French
colonial troops, and on their right with the British. Thus there were
Canadian and French colonial troops side by side.
Toward the end of April the Germans reverted to supreme barbarism and
used poison gas. Undismayed, though suffering terrible losses, the
heroic Canadians fought the second battle of Ypres and held the line in
the face of the most terrific assaults.
When the news of the second battle of Ypres reached Canada her people
were profoundly stirred. The blight of war had at last fallen heavily,
destroying her first-born, but sorrow was mixed with pride and
exaltation that Canadian men had proved a match for the most
scientifically trained troops in Europe. As fighters Canadians had at
once leaped into front rank. British, Scotch and Irish blood, with
British traditions, had proved greater forces than the scientific
training and philosophic principles of the Huns. It was a glorious
illustration of the axiom “right is greater than might,” winch the
German had in his pride reversed to read “might is right.” It was
prophetic of what the final issue of a contest based on such divergent
principles was to be. So in those days Canadian men and women held their
heads higher and carried on their war work with increased determination,
stimulated by the knowledge that they were contending with an enemy more
remorseless and implacable than those terrible creatures which used to
come to them in their childish dreams. It was felt that, a nation which
could scientifically and in cold blood resort to poison gases— contrary
to all accepted agreements of civilized countries—to gain its object
must be fought with all the determination, resources and skill which it
was possible to employ.
Canada’s heart had been steeled. She was now in the war with her last
dollar and her last man if need be. She had begun to realize that
failure in Europe would simply transfer the struggle with the German
fighting hordes to our Atlantic provinces and the eastern American
The famous Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry was originally
composed of soldiers who had actually seen service and were therefore
veterans. Incidentally they were older men and most of them were married
but the call of the Empire was insistent.
In the winter of 1914-15 the British line in Flanders was very thin and
the P. P. C. L. I’s. being a trained regiment was sent over to France
several weeks before the first Canadian division. It soon earned the
name of a regiment of extraordinarily hard-fighting qualities and was
all but wiped out before spring arrived. The immortal story of this
gallant unit must be read in detail if one wishes to obtain any clear
conception of their deeds of valor— of what it is possible for man to go
through and live. However, it was but one regiment whose exploits wore
later equaled by other Canadian regiments and it would therefore be
invidious to select any one for special praise. After operating as a
separate regiment for nearly two years and having been recruited from
the regular Canadian depots in England, it became in composition like
other Canadian regiments and was finally incorporated in the third
In the spring of 1915, a Canadian cavalry brigade was formed in France
made up of Strathcona’s Horse, King Edward’s Horse, the Royal Canadian
Dragoons anti Canadian Mounted Rifles.
After the second battle of Ypres, the Canadians after resting and
re-organization, were moved to a section of the line near LaBassee. Here
they fought the battle of Festubert—a series of infantry attacks and
artillery bombardments, which gained little ground.
Shortly afterwards they fought the battle of Givenchy, equally futile,
as far as material results were concerned. Both of these battles had the
double object of feeling out the strength of the German line and of
obtaining the Aubers Ridge, should the attacks prove successful. In both
battles the Canadians showed great aptitude for attack, and tenacity in
their hold of captured trenches. They also learned the difficult lesson
that if an objective is passed by the infantry the latter enter the zone
of their own artillery fire and suffer accordingly.
In September, 1915, the Second Canadian Division arrived in Flanders and
took its place at the side of the First Canadian Division, then
occupying the Ploegsteert section in front of the Messines-Wytschaete
Ridge. The rest of the winter was spent more or less quietly by both
divisions in the usual trench warfare, and battling with mud, water and
It was here that the Canadians evolved the “trench raid,” a method of
cutting off a section of enemy trench, killing or taking prisoners all
the enemy inhabitants, destroying it and returning with little or no
loss to the attacking party. This method was quickly copied from one end
of the Franco-British line to the other; it proved a most valuable
method of gaining information, and served to keep the troops, during the
long cold winter months, stimulated and keen when otherwise life would
have proved most dull and uninteresting.
The Third Canadian Division was formed in January and February, 1916.
One infantry brigade was composed of regiments which, had been acting as
Canadian corps troops, including the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light
Infantry, and the Royal Canadian Regiment. The second infantry brigade
was made up of six Canadian mounted rifle regiments, which had comprised
part of the cavalry brigade. These two brigades, of the Third Division,
under the command of General Mercer of Toronto, almost immediately began
During this period, the Germans, making desperate efforts extending over
weeks of time, did their utmost to break through the French line at
Verdun and exhaust the French reserves. To offset these objects, a
fourth British army was assembled, which took over still more of the
French line, while a series of British attacks, intended to pin down the
German reserves all along the line, was inaugurated. One of these
developed into a fight for the craters—a terrible struggle at St. Eloi,
where, blasted from their muddy ditches, with rifles and machine guns
choked with mud and water; with communications lost and lack of
artillery support, the men of the Second Canadian Division fought gamely
from April 6th to April 20th, but were forced to yield the craters and
part of their front line system to the enemy.
Notwithstanding this the men of the Second Canadian Division at St. Eloi
fought quite as nobly as had their brothers of the First Division just a
year before, at the glorious battle of Ypres, a few miles farther north.
But it was a hitter experience. The lesson of failure is as necessary in
the education of a nation as that of success.
On June 2d and 3d, the Third Canadian Division, which then occupied part
of the line in the Ypres salient, including Hooge and Sanctuary Wood,
was smothered by an artillery bombardment unprecedented in length and
intensity. Trenches melted into irregular heaps of splintered wood,
broken sand bags and mangled bodies. Fighting gallantly the men of this
division fell in large numbers, where they stood. The best infantry in
the world is powerless against avalanches of shells projected from
greatly superior numbers of guns. The Canadian trenches were
obliterated, not captured.
By this time Britain had thoroughly learned her lesson, and now
countless shells and guns were pouring into France from Great Britain
where thousands of factories, new and old, toiled night and day, under
the inspiring energy of Mr. Lloyd George.
On June 13th, in a terrific counter-attack, the Canadians in turn
blasted the Huns from the trenches taken from them a few days before.
The First Canadian Division recaptured and consolidated all the ground
and trench systems that had been lost. Thus ended the second year of
Canadian military operations in the Ypres salient. Each of the three
Canadian divisions had been tried by fire in that terrible region, from
which, it was said, no man ever returned the same as he entered it.
Beneath its tom and rifted surface, thousands of Canadians lie, mute
testimony to the fact that love of liberty is still one of the most
powerful, yet most intangible, things that man is swayed by.
A very distinguished French general, speaking of the part that Canada
was playing in the war, said, “Nothing in the history of the world has
ever been known quite like it. My countrymen are fighting within fifty
miles of Paris, to push back and chastise a vile and leprous race, which
has violated the chastity of beautiful France, but the Australians at
the Dardanelles and the Canadians at Ypres, fought with supreme and
absolute devotion for what to many must have seemed simple abstractions,
and that nation which will support for an abstraction the horror of this
war of all wars will ever hold the highest place in the records of human
The Fourth Canadian Division reached the Ypres region in August, 1916,
just as the other three Canadian divisions were leaving for the Somme
battle-field farther south. For a while it occupied part of the line
near Kemmel, but soon followed the other divisions to the Somme, there
to complete the Canadian corps.
It may be stated here that though a fifth Canadian division was formed
and thoroughly trained in England, it never reached France. Canada,
until the passing of the Military Service Act on July 6,1917, depended
solely on voluntary enlistment. Up to that time Canada, with a
population of less than 9,000,000, had recruited 525,000 men by
voluntary methods. Of this number 356,9S6 had actually gone overseas.
Voluntary methods at last, however, failed to supply drafts in
sufficient numbers to keep up the strength of the depleted reserves in
England, and in consequence conscription was decided upon. By this
means, 56,000 men were drafted in Canada before the war ended. In the
meantime, through heavy fighting the demand for drafts became so
insistent that the Fifth Canadian Division in England had to be broken
up to reinforce the exhausted fighting divisions in France.
It would be an incomplete summary of Canada's part in the war that did
not mention some of the men who have been responsible for the success of
Canadian arms. It is obviously impossible to mention all of those
responsible; it is even harder to select a few. But looking backward one
sees two figures that stand forth from11 all the rest—General Sir Sam
Hughes in Canada, and General Sir Arthur Currie commander of the
To General Sir Sam Hughes must be given the credit of having foreseen
war with Germany and making such preparations as were possible in a
democracy like Canada. He it was of all others who galvanized Canada
into action; he it was whose enthusiasm and driving power were so
contagious that they affected not only his subordinates but the country
Sir Sam Hughes will be remembered for the building of Valcartier camp
and the dispatch of the first Canadian contingent. But he did things of
just as great importance. It was he who sought and obtained for Canada,
huge orders for munitions from Great Britain and thereby made it
possible for Canada to weather the financial depression, pay her own war
expenditures and emerge from the war in better financial shape than she
was when the war broke out. It was easy to build up a business once
established but the chief credit must go to the man who established it.
Sir Sam Hughes was also responsible for the selection of the officers
who went overseas with the first Canadian contingent. Among those
officers who subsequently became divisional commanders were General Sir
Arthur Currie, General Sir Richard Turner, General Sir David Watson,
Generals Lipsett, Mercer and Hughes.
Of these generals, Sir Arthur Currie through sheer ability ultimately
became commander of the Canadian corps. This big, quiet man, whose
consideration, prudence and brilliancy had won the absolute confidence
of Canadian officers and men alike, welded the Canadian corps into a
fighting force of incomparable effectiveness—a force which was set the
most difficult tasks and, as events proved, not in vain.
When Canada entered the war she had a permanent force of 3,000 men. When
hostilities ceased on November 11, 1918, Canada had sent overseas
418,980 soldiers. In addition to this about 15,000 men bad joined the
British Royal Air Service, several hundred physicians and veterinarians,
as well as 200 nurses, had been supplied to the British army, while many
hundreds of university men had received communications in the imperial
army and navy.
In September, October and November, 1916, the Canadian corps of four
divisions, which had been welded by General Byng and General Currie into
an exceedingly efficient fighting machine, took its part in the battle
of the Somme—a battle in which the British army assumed the heaviest
share of the fighting and casualties, and shifted the greatest burden of
the struggle from the shoulders of the French to their own. The British
army had grown vastly in power and efficiency and in growing had taken
over more and more of the line from the French.
The battle of the Somme was long and involved. The Franco-British forces
were everywhere victorious and by hard and continuous fighting forced
the Hun hack to the famous Hindenhurg line. It was in this battle that
the tanks, evolved by the British, were used for the first time, and
played a most important part in breaking down wire entanglements and
rounding up the machine gun nests. The part played in this battle by the
Canadian corps was conspicuous, and it especially distinguished itself
by the capture of Courcelette. Although the battles which the Canadian
corps took part in subsequently were almost invariably both successful
and important, they can be merely mentioned here. The Canadian corps now
known everywhere to consist of shock troops second to none on the
western front, was frequently used as the spearhead with which to pierce
particularly tough parts of the enemy defenses.
On April 9th to 13th, 1917, the Canadian corps, with some British
support, captured Vimy Ridge, a point which had hitherto proved
invulnerable. When a year later, the Germans, north and south, swept the
British line to one side in gigantic thrusts they were unable to disturb
this key point, Vimy Ridge, which served as an anchor to the sagging
fine. The Canadian corps was engaged at Arleux and Fresnoy in April and
May and was effective in the operations around Lens in June. Again on
August 15th, it was engaged at Hill 70 and fought with conspicuous
success in that toughest, most difficult, and most heart-breaking of all
battles - Passchendaele.
In 1918, the Canadian Cavalry Brigade won distinction in the German
offensive of March and April. On August 12, 1918, the Canadian corps was
engaged in the brilliantly successful battle of Amiens, which completely
upset the German offensive plan. On August 26th to 28th the Canadians
captured Monchy-le-Preux, and, in one of the hammer blows which Foch
rained on the German front, were given the most difficult piece of the
whole line to pierce—the Queant-Drocourt line. This section of the
famous Hindenburg line was considered by the enemy to be absolutely
impregnable, but was captured by the Canadians on September 3d and 4th.
With, this line outflanked a vast German retreat began, which ended on
November 11th with the signing of the armistice.
To the Canadians fell the honors of breaking through the first
Hindenburg line by the capture of Cambrai, on October 1st to 9th. They
also took Douai on October 19th, and Dena on October 20th. On October
26th to November 2d they had the signal honor of capturing Valenciennes
thereby being the first troops to break through the fourth and last
It surely was a curious coincidence that Mons, from which the original
British army—the best trained, it is said, that has taken the field
since the time of Caesar—began its retreat in 1914, should have been the
town which Canadian civilians were destined to recapture. The war began
for the professional British army— the Contemptibles—when it began its
retreat from Mons in 1914; the war ended for the British army at the
very same town four years and three months later, when on the day the
armistice was signed the men from Canada re-entered it. Was it
coincidence, or was it fate?
During the war Canadian troops had sustained 211,000 casualties, 152,000
had been wounded and more than 50,000 had made the supreme sacrifice.
Put into different language this means that the number of Canadians
killed was just a little greater than the total number of infantrymen in
their corps of four divisions.
The extent of the work involved in the care of the wounded and sick of
the Canadians overseas may be gathered from the fact that Canada
equipped and sent across the Atlantic, 7 general hospitals, 10
stationary hospitals, 16 field ambulances, 3 sanitary sections, 4
casualty clearing stations and advanced and base depots of medical
stores: The personnel of these medical units consisted
FROM THE VOSGES MOUNTAIN'S TO YPRES
Map showing the Northeastern frontiers of France, and neutral Belgium
through which the German armies poured in 1914. The battle line held
straight from Belfort to Verdun, with the exception of the St. Mihiel
salient, bove Verdun the line veered to the west, north of Rheims,
marking a wide line toward St. Quentin and Arras and bending back to
Ypres, held by the Canadians throughout the war.
of 1,612 officers, 1,994 nursing sisters
and 12,382 of other ranks, or a total of about 16,000. This will give
some conception of the importance of the task involved in the caring for
the sick and wounded of about 90,000 fighting troops, some 60,000
auxiliary troops behind the lines and the reserve depots in England.
The work of the Canadian Red Cross Society included the building and
equipping of auxiliary hospitals to those of the Canadian Army Medical
Corps; providing of extra and emergency stores of all kinds, recreation
huts, ambulances and lorries, drugs, serums and surgical equipment
calculated to make hospitals more efficient; the looking after the
comfort of patients in hospitals providing recreation and entertainment
to the wounded, and dispatching regularly to every Canadian prisoner
parcels of food, as well as clothes, books and other necessaries: The
Canadian Red Cross expended on goods for prisoners in 1917 nearly
In all the Canadian Red Cross distributed since the beginning of the war
to November 23, 1918, $7,631,100.
The approximate total of voluntary contributions from Canada for war
purposes was over $90,000,000.
The following figures quoted from tables issued by the Department of
Public Information at Ottawa, show the exports in certain Canadian
commodities, having a direct bearing on the war for the last three
fiscal years before the war (1912-13-14), and for the last fiscal year
(191S); and illustrates the increase, during this period, in the value
of these articles exported:
As practically all of the increase of food
and other materials went to Great Britain, France and Italy, the extent
of Canada’s effort in upholding the allied cause is clearly evident and
was by no means a small one.
The trade of Canada for 1914 was one billion dollars; for the fiscal
year of 1917—IS it was two and one-half billion dollars.
Approximately 60,000,000 shells were made in Canada during the war.
Shortly after the outbreak of hostilities a shell committee was formed
in Canada to really act as an agent for the British war office in
placing contracts. The first shells were shipped in December, 1914, and
by the end of May, 1915, approximately 400 establishments were
manufacturing shells in Canada. By November, 1915, orders had been
placed by the Imperial Government to the value of $300,000,000, and an
Imperial Munitions Board, replacing the shell committee, was formed,
directly responsible to the Imperial Ministry of Munitions.
During the war period Canada purchased from her bank savings
$1,669,3S1,000 of Canadian war loans.
Estimates of expenditures for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1919,
demonstrated the thoroughness with which Canada went to war. They
Electric Scotland Note:
The author of this account also published a report...
The Chemistry of Wheat Gluten
By Geo. G. Nasmith, B.A.
He also wrote the 2 volume...
Canada's Sons in the World War
A complete and authentic history of the commanding part played by Canada
and the British Empire in the World's Greatest War
Volume 1 |