Canada is home to the
second largest Czech diaspora after the United States. Today, Czech
Canadians form an ethnocultural community with a rich history dating
back to the 1880s.
The Czechs are a West Slavic ethnic group native to central Europe. The
group inhabits the Czechs Lands, which consist of three historic regions
(Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia). Canada is home to the
second-largest Czech diaspora after the United States. In the 2016
Canadian Census, 104,580 Canadians claimed full or partial Czech
ethnicity. Within this population, 81,330 Canadians reported multiple
origins, while 23,250 Canadians claimed only to be of Czech origins.
Meanwhile, 40,715 Canadians indicated that they had Czechoslovakian
The Czechs and the Slovaks form separate ethnocultural groups. Both
groups have historically been conflated because their languages and
cultures were similar, and they shared a common statehood during
Czechoslovakia’s existence, from 1918 to 1992. During this period, a
majority of Slovaks opposed a common ‘Czechoslovak’ nationhood often
promoted by Czechs and a minority of Slovaks.
Notable Canadians of Czech ancestry include shoe magnate Tomáš J. Baťa
(1914-2008), Olympic swimmer Alex Baumann (1964- ), documentary
filmmaker Kateřina Čížek (1969- ), entrepreneur and publisher František
Dojáček (1880-1951), journalist Hana Gartner (1948- ), humanitarian
Lotta Hitschmanová (1909-1990), Olympic alpine skier Jan Hudec (1981- ),
figure skater and politician Otto Jelínek (1940- ), lumber magnate Leon
J. Koerner (1892-1972), composer Oskar Morawetz (1917-2007),
professional ice hockey player Petr Nedvěd (1971- ), professional tennis
player Vašek Pospíšil (1990- ), actor-opera singer Jan Rubeš
(1920-2009), writer-publisher, Josef Škvorecký (1924-2012) and his wife,
writer-publisher, Zdena Salivarová (1933- ), and inventor and engineer,
Karel Velan (1918-2017).
Migration and Settlement in Canada
Czech immigration to Canada can be divided into four distinct periods:
before the First World War (1880s-1914), between the World Wars
(1919-1939), the Cold War (1945-1989), and from the fall of communism to
the present (1990- ). The first two periods are marked by the
immigration of Czechs in search of economic opportunity and available
farmland. During this period, many Czech immigrants were sojourners who
sought employment in agriculture and industry in order to accumulate
wealth and purchase their own land or to return home with their
earnings. The Great Depression forced many Czech sojourners to remain in
Canada. During the Cold War, Czechs immigrated to Canada as political
refugees who had fled a repressive communist regime in their homeland. A
lack of social and political freedom, and the threat of persecution
combined with a stagnant economic climate, forced many Czechs to seek
refuge in Canada. After the fall of communism in Czechoslovakia, Czechs
left their homeland to reunite with family members, or to seek economic
opportunity in Canada.
In the period before the First World War, a majority of Czech immigrants
with an agricultural background resettled in the Prairies due to the
region’s abundance of land. Czech immigrants first arrived in Canada in
1884 and settled in Kolin, Saskatchewan. The majority of Czechs from
central Europe were soon followed by their compatriots in the United
States, who had first settled in Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska,
Oklahoma, and Texas, and were in search of land for agriculture. They
soon established communities across Western Canada including Derdard,
Glenside and Dovedale in Saskatchewan, and Prague in Alberta. By the
turn of the twentieth century, a small community of mostly professionals
and artisans existed in Edmonton.
Czechs who settled in rural areas across the Prairies soon formed
community groups, which helped to cultivate ethnic identity and culture.
In 1912, Czechs in Kolin and Esterhazy, Saskatchewan established
community associations with compatriots in Esterhazy the first to form a
fraternal society. Its mandate was to care for the sick or needy, to
maintain an ethnic library, and to promote Czech-language education.
According to the Esterhazy Observer, the society had 60 members in 1912.
Founded in 1862 at Prague, in the Austrian Empire, the Sokol (Falcon)
movement was a patriotic voluntary organization that advocated
gymnastics and non-partisan patriotism for their spiritual, physical,
and educational benefits. Czech immigrants first established a branch in
Michel, British Columbia in 1911, and the movement later spread to
Czech communities across Canada. Sokol members were taught to be on the
front line in the defense of the old homeland and to defend democratic
Prior to the First World War, Winnipeg became the nucleus of the Czech
community in Canada. In 1913, Czech and Slovak immigrants founded the
Czecho-Slavic Benevolent Association, the first ‘Czechoslovak’ mutual
aid association in Canada. Serving Czechs and Slovaks, the organization
had an initial membership of 54 people. The Association quickly became a
major centre of patriotic action when it was instrumental in forming the
Bohemian detachment of the 223rd Battalion (Canadian Scandinavians)
during the First World War. Upon arrival in England in May 1917, the
unit was absorbed into the 11th Reserve Battalion. Following
Czechoslovakia’s independence in October 1918, the Czecho-Slavic
Benevolent Association was renamed the Czechoslovak Benevolent
During the interwar period, some Czechs who had resettled in the
Prairies began to search for economic opportunity elsewhere. The
emergence of industry and urbanization across Canada soon attracted
labourers looking for employment. By the late 1920s, Winnipeg was home
to about 1,000 people from Czechoslovakia; some 400 of them were Czechs.
The community consisted of labourers and entrepreneurs – including a
large number of tailors and shoemakers. The city also served as a
seasonal residence for agriculturalists during the winter months.
In Northern Ontario, Czech miners established communities in Haileybury,
Fort William, and Kirkland Lake, while other industrial labourers
settled across the province, notably in Hamilton, Kingston, Kitchener,
Oshawa, St. Catharines, Toronto, Welland and Windsor. Czech immigrants
from Moravia entered into a labour scheme organized by the Česká
Zahraničová Instituce (Czech International Institute) and the Sugar Beet
Growers Association of Canada; they brought agriculturalists to Canada
to work in the sugar beet industry in Lethbridge, Alberta and Chatham,
Ontario. During the 1920s, Montreal’s Czech and Slovak population
numbered some 3,700 individuals, while Toronto had attracted 2,500
individuals. Most of these newcomers were immigrants from
Czechoslovakia. By the 1931 census, about 30,000 Canadian residents had
come from Czechoslovakia, less than half were Czechs.
The 1938 Munich Agreement between the British, French, German and
Italian governments, which allowed German authorities to annex the
predominantly German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia, and the
subsequent March 1939 German invasion of a truncated Czecho-Slovak
state, forced over 186,000 refugees to flee their homeland (see Second
World War). One prominent group of refugees to resettle in Canada were
the employees of the Bata Shoe Company from Zlín, Moravia. Industrial
magnate Tomáš J. Baťa and 82 workers re-assembled the business as a
company town, named Batawa, near Frankford Ontario. The company would go
on to produce military equipment for the Allied War effort.
The German occupation of the Czech Lands galvanized Canadian Czechs to
help liberate their homeland from fascism. In June 1939, a group of
Czechs, Slovaks and Subcarpathian Ruthenians formed the National
Alliance of Slovaks, Czechs and Subcarpathian Ruthenians in Toronto. In
April 1940, the alliance merged with the Czechoslovak National Alliance
(CNA), based in Montreal. The new body served as a national organization
for Czechs and other individuals who supported a ‘Czechoslovak’
orientation. The CNA was instrumental in coordinating efforts to support
the Allied war effort in Canada and overseas. The CNA’s activities were
publicized through its newspaper, Nová vlasť (New Homeland). Under the
Czechoslovak War Charities Fund, members of the CNA and the Czechoslovak
community raised $330,922 for the Allied war effort. The CNA sent relief
parcels including cigarettes and chocolates to Czechoslovak soldiers
Czechs in Canada, who were foreign nationals and had yet to be
naturalized, were subject to the Defence of Canada Regulations (DOCRs),
which classified foreign nationals from Axis-aligned territories as
“enemy aliens.” The DOCRs provided federal officials with the ability to
detain, arrest, seize assets and property and deny an individual their
legal rights. With their homeland under German occupation, Czechs in
Canada were viewed as potential security risks because they were
nationals of a state that had ceased to exist due to German occupation.
Some Czechs in Canada saw their civil liberties restricted.
Since the Canadian government never recognized the German occupation of
the Czech Lands, former Czechoslovak consul general, Dr. František
Pavlásek, was permitted to remain in Canada, and his diplomatic
privileges and consular rights were respected. Pavlásek assisted
Canadian officials in determining which of his co-nationals were
“trustworthy” residents in Canada. The former Czechoslovak consul
general lobbied the Canadian Czechoslovak and nationalist Slovak
communities to register with his diplomatic mission in order to be
regarded as “liberated enemy aliens” and to receive a Certificate of
Exemption declaring them to be members of an Allied nation. Canadian
Slovaks, represented by the Canadian Slovak League, accused Pavlásek of
attempting to create loyalty lists, further dividing the Slovak
community between pro-Czechoslovaks and nationalist Slovaks who opposed
the former Consul General’s efforts.
By supporting the Allied War effort, Czechs, as members of a broader
Czechoslovak community, actively demonstrated their loyalty to Canada.
Czechoslovaks and nationalist Slovaks separately lobbied federal
officials for recognition as members of Allied nations. In April 1941,
the Canadian government recognized Czechs and Slovaks as Allied peoples.
In 1944, Masaryk Hall was founded in Toronto as a cultural and
educational centre for Czechoslovak Canadians. Alongside the CNA, the
hall, which was later renamed the Masaryk Memorial Institute, provided
financial relief and social assistance to compatriots across Canada.
During the early postwar period, the CNA collected food, clothing and
funds to be sent to a re-established Czechoslovak state. The CNA’s
postwar agenda consisted of postwar relief for Czechoslovakia, promoting
Canadian citizenship and cultivating ethnocultural heritage. In 1946,
the CNA submitted a brief and testified before the Senate Standing
Committee on Immigration and Labour. The alliance urged a widening of
the categories of relatives who were permitted to enter Canada.
The communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in February 1948 forced
thousands of democratic politicians, professionals, students and workers
to flee their homeland. The Canadian Fund for Czechoslovak Refugees was
founded to help more than 3,000 Czechs residing in German refugee camps
resettle in Canada. Between 1948 and 1952, over 10,000 predominantly
Czech refugees, many of whom were living in Displaced Persons camps (in
Allied-occupied Germany and Austria, and Italy), immigrated to Canada.
The Sokol movement, which had been banned in Czechoslovakia for its
anti-communist stance, resurfaced overseas as the Czechoslovak Sokol
Abroad. Many Canadian Sokol members promoted the return of democracy to
Czechoslovakia, raised public awareness of conditions back home and
assisted in the resettlement of Czech refugees in Canada. The CNA’s
branches across the country also provided assistance to these newcomers
by finding them accommodations, purchasing daily necessities, acquiring
employment and enrolling newcomers in English- and French-language
Less than a decade later, the 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary
demonstrated to many Czech Canadians that their homeland would not be
easily liberated from communism. Community members further turned their
focus towards Canadian citizenship and cultivating ethnocultural
heritage in Canada.
In August 1968, the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia,
to suppress the Prague Spring reform movement, spurred another refugee
crisis. With the resettlement of more than 38,000 Hungarian refugees in
1956-1957 as a precedent, the Canadian government implemented another
special program for refugees; it relaxed admissions criteria, including
medical and security screening, to bring close to 12,000 Prague Spring
refugees to Canada between 1968 and 1969. Federal and provincial
officials provided language courses and helped find employment for the
newcomers. Earlier arrivals, and CNA branches across the country, also
provided assistance similar to that given to the 1948 refugees.
During the 1970s and 1980s, Czech refugees continued to arrive in
Canada. Individuals defected from Czechoslovak State Airlines flights,
en route from Prague to Havana, with refuelling stopovers at Gander and
Mirabel International Airports. In other instances, Czechs secured
travel documentation for a ‘vacation’ to Yugoslavia. Once there, they
made a claim for asylum under the UN refugee convention in the hopes of
being permanently resettled in the West, or they secretly crossed the
border into Austria. During the Cold War period, most Czech refugees in
Canada resettled in Ontario, followed by Quebec, British Columbia, and
The demise of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia in November 1989,
afforded Czech Canadians the ability to reconnect with family and
friends, and to commence studies or conduct business in their ancestral
homeland. Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992, the Czech
Republic and the Slovak Republic were established as separate countries
in January 1993. Many Czech groups in Canada, which had supported a
‘Czechoslovak’ orientation, subsequently changed their names to “Czech
and Slovak” to reflect this new reality. Between 1993 and 2015, 4,696
Czech nationals immigrated to Canada. Since 1993, Czech immigration to
Canada has steadied, with an average of 204 individuals per year granted
permanent resident status upon landing in the country.
As a smaller Slavic community in Canada, Czechs have tended to prefer
small and informal group organizations when compared with the larger
Ukrainian, Polish, and Russian communities in Canada. This is in part
due to many Czechs having achieved a higher level of institutional
assimilation. While most Czechs retain their ethnic identity, they are
less likely to participate in community institutions, preferring to join
non-ethnocultural Canadian organizations. During the twentieth century,
despite having smaller and fewer group organizations, Czechs were
successful in establishing community groups across Canada. The most
prominent of these groups were the Czecho-Slavic Benevolent Association,
founded in Winnipeg in 1913; the National Alliance of Slovaks, Czechs,
and Subcarpathian Ruthenians, established in Toronto in 1939; and the
Masaryk Hall, formed in Toronto in 1944.
When compared with their neighbours, the Slovaks, Czechs have also
achieved a higher level of intermarriage, and especially with
individuals predominantly of Anglo-German background. They have often
relocated from ethnic neighbourhoods in order to avoid being ghettoized.
Approximately 75 per cent of Czechs in Canada are of Catholic
background, with a minority of individuals belonging to the Protestant
denominations, including the Moravian Brethren, Baptist, and Lutheran
churches. Prior to the Second World War, many Czech immigrants joined
the fraternal benefit societies and national parishes of their European
neighbours, namely the Slovaks, Hungarians and Poles. After the Second
World War, Czech immigrants arrived in Canada with a higher level of
education and experience, which allowed them to rapidly improve their
socioeconomic status compared with earlier arrivals. Postwar Czech
immigrants also helped to establish weekend schools where they could
cultivate Czech culture, language and history among successive
generations. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, 22,195 individuals
claimed Czech as their mother tongue. Within this group, 82 per cent
were immigrants (first generation in Canada).
The ethnic press has also played an important role in promoting Canadian
citizenship and cultivating ethnocultural heritage in the Czech Canadian
community. In 1934, Nová vlasť (New Homeland) was established as a
“Czechoslovak weekly” in Montreal. Published primarily in the Slovak
language, the paper became the semi-official organ of the Czechoslovak
Consulate General. The paper stopped publishing prior to the communist
takeover of Czechoslovakia in February 1948. Other community papers
include Naše hlasy (Our Voices) from 1955 to 1974, Kanadské listy
(Canadian Papers) from 1973 to 2008, and the Masaryk Memorial
Institute’s official organ, Nový domov (New Homeland) established in
1950. After six decades in circulation, Nový domov has become a
prominent publication for Czech expatriates around the world.
The 2016 Canadian Census indicates that the largest ethnic Czech
population resides in Toronto (16,630), followed by Vancouver (11,710),
Calgary (7,605), Edmonton (6,105), Montreal (5,035), Ottawa (3,700),
Hamilton (3,555), Winnipeg (3,140), Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo
(2,465), Victoria (2,015), London (1,850), Saskatoon (1,335), Windsor
(1,290) and Regina (1,160).
In October 1920, the Czechoslovak government established a consulate in
Montreal due to increasing economic and personal relations between
Canadian and Czechoslovak citizens. A month later, Consul Bohuslav
Ryznar officially began his posting in Montreal. In 1923, the consulate
was elevated to a consulate general. The office’s operations were
overseen by the Czechoslovak Embassy in London. Following the German
invasion of the Czech Lands in March 1939, the Canadian government
continued to recognize the legal existence of a truncated Czecho-Slovakia
after the annexation of the predominantly German-speaking Sudetenland.
On 12 October 1940, Canada became the last remaining British Dominion to
officially recognize the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in London,
England, and opened relations between both administrations. Following
consultations with the Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Canadian
officials announced, on 4 July 1942, that a Czechoslovak embassy would
be opened in Ottawa with the consent of the Canadian government.
Less than two weeks later, Prime Minister Mackenzie King announced that
the Canadian government and the Czechoslovak government-in-exile had
agreed to begin full and reciprocal diplomatic relations between both
governments. In August 1942, newly appointed Czechoslovak Minister to
Canada, František Pavlásek, presented his credentials to Governor
General Lord Athlone in Ottawa. In November, the Canadian government
appointed Brigadier General Vanier as Canadian Minister to the
Czechoslovak government-in-exile in London. In June 1962, the Canadian
government decided to raise its diplomatic mission in Prague to the
status of an embassy (see Diplomatic and Consular Representations).
Czechoslovak authorities were granted the same privilege. On 30 July
1962, the missions in Ottawa and Prague became embassies. During the
Cold War, a number of issues including travel restrictions, family
reunification, compensation for nationalized property, and economic
trade were the subject of bilateral negotiations between Canadian and
Czechoslovak diplomatic representatives.
Joe Schlesinger, one of Canada's foremost
journalists, has died at 90
Joe Schlesinger: 2009 CJF Lifetime
Achievement Award recipient
Schlesinger spent decades covering some of
the most significant events of the 20th and 21st centuries
Joe Schlesinger, who narrowly escaped the Nazis as a young boy growing
up in the former Czechoslovakia and ended up becoming one of Canada's
most beloved and respected journalists, has died after a lengthy
He was 90 years old.
As a foreign correspondent for the CBC, Schlesinger covered some of the
most significant news events of the latter part of the 20th century and
He bore witness to historical events from Vietnam to the fall of the
Berlin Wall and the first Gulf War, and he did so in his inimitable way,
with his accented English, his gimlet eye for detail and the elan of a
"You could see the way he talked to the camera, embraced the camera,"
former CBC News chief correspondent Peter Mansbridge said today from his
home in Stratford, Ont.
"In translating the story to all of us, whatever that story was,
wherever he happened to be. Whether he was in Zimbabwe, being gassed by
Zimbabwean soldiers, whether he was in Vietnam, whether he was in the
streets of Paris during riots. He knew how to tell a story in a way that
could really embrace the viewer. That's an art form."
Joe Schlesinger. Look at a map and it seems you could point to anywhere
and remember a story Joe did from there. Storytelling that few will ever
match and in ways that made us all better informed about the planet we
live on. You’ve earned your rest Joe.
Schlesinger was in St. Peter's Square in Rome in 1978 when John Paul II
became Pope and in Tehran a year later when the Shah fell.
Schlesinger reflected on his long tenure as a globe-trotting journalist
in a 2009 interview with the Canadian Press, saying, "I have a career of
wandering around the world, watching the universe unfold and actually
getting paid for it. It's like a little boy's dream."
Born in Vienna in 1928, Schlesinger and his family later moved to the
former Czechoslovakia, where he spent his early childhood.
He would later reflect that the experiences of his childhood were what
led him into journalism, reporting on "the triumphs on the world," such
as those momentous days in Berlin in the early 1990s, but more often on
"the travails of war" and other disasters.
While living in Bratislava in the late 1930s, his family witnessed the
rise of Hitler, and, as Jews, his parents were particularly fearful of
what might happen to them.
They decided to send Schlesinger, then 11, and his nine-year-old
brother, Ernie, to Britain under a study program for Jewish children.
Schlesinger and his brother were among the more than 200 kids who
travelled under guard by train through Nazi Germany in June 1939 on the
The trip was one of a series of secretive operations that spirited
thousands of Jewish children out of Nazi-occupied Europe. Schlesinger's
parents were later killed in the Holocaust.
It was only revealed decades later that this daring escape had been
organized by the eccentric British businessman Nicholas Winton.
"If it hadn't been for Nicky Winton, I certainly wouldn't be alive
today," Schlesinger told Sook-Yin Lee on CBC's Definitely Not the Opera
"This is the man who gave me the rest of my life."
Schlesinger eventually became close to Winton and wrote about him and
the Kindertransport on several occasions.
A second escape
Schlesinger and his brother returned to Czechoslovakia after the war,
and one of Schlesinger's earliest journalism jobs was with The
Associated Press in Prague in 1948.
But as the post-war Communist government began to arrest journalists,
Schlesinger was forced to leave his homeland a second time. In 1950, he
ended up as a refugee in Vancouver.
Schlesinger worked as a waiter, construction worker and seaman before
enrolling at the University of British Columbia, where he spent much of
his time at the campus newspaper.
This led to a job at a Vancouver paper and then a position at the
Schlesinger would move overseas to join UPI in London and, later, the
Herald Tribune in Paris before returning to Canada, where he started at
the CBC in 1966.
Schlesinger quickly worked his way up into CBC news management but then
made the unusual decision of returning to the field.
"I only realized as I started climbing up the ladder that this is not
what I wanted to do," he said in a 1994 CBC documentary. "That's when I
went out again as a reporter, and I've been happier ever since, thank
Schlesinger joined CBC News in 1966 and reported on developing stories
in various hot spots around the globe. (CBC)
One of Schlesinger's first assignments back in the field was reporting
from inside Mao's Cultural Revolution in China in the early 1970s.
In fact, he was one of the few to get a firsthand look at China's
"Ping-Pong diplomacy," when a couple of Ping-Pong players from the U.S.
and China helped change the course of history.
He would go on to cover such world events as the Iranian Revolution, the
Contra war in Nicaragua and the first Persian Gulf war. Decades later,
he remembered riding an elephant in Cambodia with an army patrol,
chasing Khmer Rouge guerillas through the rice paddies.
"I fell off the elephant," he said. "But nevermind."
Former CBC News foreign correspondent Brian Stewart remembers his friend
and colleague as "a global mind and a global reporter."
"He always took the sophistication into the field," Stewart said in an
interview with CBC News Now. "He had a great context for stories, a
great sense of history. He discussed the historical depth of stories so
well ... and he always seemed to know more than we did because he did,
let's face it."
The renowned journalist was inducted into the CBC News Hall of Fame in
2016. On that occasion, he shared with the CBC's Adrienne Arsenault the
memory of what he loved most about being on the road.
"Of having a carte blanche in life. Of being able to follow one's
instincts. Of being able to find something new and exciting, something
that would interest me and presumably interest an audience."
He also worked as a correspondent in Paris and Washington, telling Czech
Radio in a 2005 interview, "I was there when Gorbachev came to
Washington, I was with Reagan in Moscow, and I was there in 1987 when
Reagan was in Berlin and made his speech about 'Tear down that wall, Mr
"And I remember thinking at the time, 'That's not very likely to happen
very soon.' And, of course, it did!"
He also returned to his homeland decades after he left, to report on the
Velvet Revolution from Prague. He told the Toronto Star in 2009 it was a
highlight of his career.
"If I could choose one moment, it would be going back to Prague 50 years
after I'd left as a refugee from Hitler, 40 years after I left as a
refugee from Stalin, and watching the whole system crumble."
Schlesinger officially retired in 1994 but continued to contribute to
CBC as a correspondent and an occasional columnist for CBCNews.ca until
His last CBC column was published in September 2016 in the midst of the
U.S. presidential election and the controversy over Hillary Clinton's
A little less than a year prior to that, in December 2015, he explored a
subject near to his heart: the plight of refugees, specifically those
fleeing the Syrian conflict and seeking sanctuary in Canada.
In the piece, Schlesinger acknowledged that amid fears of high
unemployment and the risks of terrorism, many Canadians had reservations
about welcoming this crop of refugees.
But as someone who had been a refugee himself, and met many more during
his decades-long career as a journalist, Schlesinger advised Canadians
to be compassionate.
"This country was built and changed for the better by refugees," he
Why Joe Schlesinger was one of the great news correspondents of his time.
Czechoslovakia, Canada and Political Correctness
Czech Republic - Canada
Hana Gartner, Canadian journalist and television
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