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A History of Tatamagouche, Nova Scotia
Chapter VII  From the Rise to the Decline of the Shipbuilding Industry

WE have already seen that up until this date the early settlers depended almost entirely for their living upon the produce of their farms. The lumbering industry had barely begun, it being confined for the most part to the sale of squared pine timber which found a good market in the Old Country. For instance, in 1802, when Waugh was in Scotland he had a vessel load sent across. Included in this cargo were some sticks 52 to 56 feet long and 18 inches square. This square timber in those days was sold by the ton, so that we find Waugh ordering “One hundred tons of square pine timber, twenty tons of hardwood consisting of black birch and maple, oak staves, three dozen hand spokes and twenty or thirty pieces of yellow pine.” But the middle “twenties” saw a great change in the industrial life of the community, for it was then that the shipbuilding industry began, an industry which for the next fifty y'ears was to be the main stay of the community.

The first registered ship of any description to be built at Tatamagouche, was the “Fish Hawk”, a small schooner of 16 tons. She was built by James Chambers and launched on the 1st of May, 1818. This was a small and modest beginning of the industry which for the next half-century was to mean much to the people of Tatamagouche. Closely following Chambers in the business came Alex. McNab of Maiagash who, on November 12th of the same year launched the “Mary” a schooner of 32 tons. For the next four years no further ships were built here, but in 1823 the “Dapper,” 22 tons; “Nancy,” 73 tons; and “Lilly,” 28 tons were built by Thomas Langille, Fred Hayman, and Murray and Samuel Waugh respectively'. These men all built for personal use in the coasting trade.

But the real founder of the shipbuilding industry at Tatamagouche was the late Hon. Alexander Campbell, who was the eldest son of William Campbell, the half-brother of Wellwood Waugh. He was born at Pictou, and as a young man came to Tatamagouche, first as a clerk for Mortimer and Smith of Pictou, but in a few years he began business for himself. No place had at that time better natural advantages for the carrying on of this industry than Tatamagouche. The two rivers made it particularly easy to transport from the interior the timber necessary for the construction of the vessels, and on the shores of rivers and harbours were to be found many suitable sites for the yards. Then, at that time there was plenty of labour, for in the vicinity were many able-bodied men who failed to get the expected returns from farming and welcomed, indeed prayed for steady employment such as could be had in a shipyard.

Campbell selected a site for his shipyard on the west bank of French River just above its junction with Waugh’s River. There, in 1824, he built his first vessel, the “Elizabeth”, a good sized schooner of 91 tons. Three years later, with his partners, he launched the first brig to be built at Tatamagouche. This was the “Devron” of 281 tons register.

The first vessels constructed in Nova Scotia for the English market were nearly all large ones, varying from 125 to 700 tons. As a rule, these were sold outright, the builders seldom, if ever, retaining a share. Often the vessel remained long unsold in the English market. In the meanwhile, expenses accumulated so that frequently the returns did not equal the expenditures. Campbell, however, who had commenced on a small scale, was always able to keep his business running and make good profits besides. At one time, after a most successful year, a friend of his urged him to retire from the business before he met with the severe losses which seemed bound to overtake all who remained long in this uncertain industry. Campbell agreed with the wisdom of the suggestion but added, “What will happen to the room I now employ?” Campbell’s words were only too true. The people, lured by the prospect of steady employment, had quickly abandoned the farms which through many sacrifices they had brought into a state of cultivation. These soon “ran out,” and it would be years before they could be brought back to their former degree of fertility. A sudden collapse of the shipbuilding industry would have brought poverty and suffering to almost every family in the community. Years after, its gradual decline was accompanied with much hardship to those who for years had looked to it as a means of livelihood.

Campbell’s first house was a log one and was situated in what is now the field of Gordon Clark, close by the railway cut. After his marriage he removed to his new house where Gavin Clark now resides. He early attained a position of great wealth and influence in Tatamagouche. Besides being the employer of many men, he had the local management of the DesBarres estate, from which, as early as 1837, he had purchased no less than 2,500 acres of the very best land. He died in 1854 at the comparatively early age of fifty-nine. A number of years before his death he had been appointed a member of the Legislative Council and it was on his return from attending its session at Halifax that he was stricken with an illness which at once proved fatal. Honest in his dealings, sound in his judgment, endowed with great natural ability, and possessing a commanding personality, he was for years the foremost man in Tatamagouche. Born when the struggle for a bare living was still a keen one, education found but a small place in his boyhood days. At an early age he was obliged to work for himself. He thus obtained in “life’s rough school’’ the training which fitted him to take a most successful and prominent part in the development of this country. Of his early days at Tatamagouche, we know but little. A log house was the first home of the man who subsequently was to count his dollars in thousands, his lands in square miles and who, during his business career of thirty years, shipped millions of feet of lumber and built over one hundred vessels. Within fifteen years after he came to Tatamagouche he was a wealthy man. He became the possessor of valuable tracts of timber from which he sold each year large quantities of lumber. From his shipyards, in which he employed about one hundred men, he launched annually three or four vessels. As the years went by his wealth and influence increased. During the “forties” he built each year five or six vessels. The number of men whom he employed had increased to two hundred. He was the local magnate of the community and throughout the whole countryside his word, to a great extent was law. The “fifties” saw his influence undiminished. Strong physically as he was, the anxieties and the worries of the treacherous business in which he was engaged were making themselves felt upon his robust constitution and at the close of the session of the Legislature in 1854 he returned home only to be stricken with a fatal illness. It is over sixty years since he passed away. Men of seventy-five remember him but slightly, yet his name is as familiar as if he had died only a score of years ago. This is because of the great position of influence which he held and because of a strong personality which so impressed itself upon those with whom he came in contact that his name still lives. His likeness shows him to have been a man possessing vigor, determination, independence and kindliness. Indeed, it was for these qualities that he was especially known. As a business man he was remarkably successful. Financial crises which could neither be foreseen nor prevented ruined many of the shipbuilders of Nova Scotia but through them all he steadily increased in wealth On several occasions, particularly in the last year of his life he suffered losses which lessened his wealth materially but even then he died a wealthy man. In public matters the people looked to him for leadership. Hence his friendship and support were wooed by the politicians of his day. That at times he used his position of influence in arbitrarily carrying out his wishes in public matters there seems but little doubt. But compared with the invaluable services which he rendered his community and, indeed his province, his public indiscretions are as dust .n the balance. It was his honour to be a member of the highest branch of a Legislature which was then performing duties fraught with the gravest responsibilities. To have been called to sit in this body during the strenuous times of seventy years ago and to have had a hand in the governing of this province during one of the most momentous periods of its history was an honour that could only come to a man of marked ability.

Mrs. Campbell, before her marriage, was Mary Archibald, a daughter of Colonel David Archibald,- who was a grandson of David Archibald, one of the pioneer settlers of Truro and the first to represent that district in the House of Assembly. She died in 1894 at the advanced age of eighty-four. She was a most remarkable woman and for years was the leader in all good works in the community. In the early days she suffered many hardships and discomforts. On one occasion she rode to Truro on horseback, carrying; her eldest child (Mrs. Patterson), then a mere infant, with her. She was kind and hospitable and there are few of the old people but can say that they have on various occasions experienced her kindness. In their family were four sons: David, George, Archibald, and William, and four daughters: Elizabeth (Mrs. Archibald Patterson), Margaret (Mrs Archibald), Hannah (Mrs. John S. McLean), and Olivia (Mrs. Howard Primrose). David and Archibald continued in their father’s business until their deaths in 1887 and 1891 respectively. Besides being leaders in the business activity of the place, they took leading parts m ail matters of public interest. Archie was an elder in the Tatamagouche Presbyterian congregation. George was a member of the legal profession and until his death in 1897 practised in Truro. William died as a young man. Of this family, the eldest, Mrs. Patterson, alone survives, now (1917) in the ninety-second year of her age. For years she lived at Halifax with Mrs. McLean, whose husband, in his life time, had been President of the Bank of Nova Scotia.

Campbell was soon followed to Tatamagouche by others who, like himself, engaged in the shipbuilding industry. Among the first to join him were his two brothers, William and James. The former had his shipyard on the east bank of the French River, near McCully’s. The ruins of his old wharf may still be seen. About 1810 he retired from the business and devoted himself to farming. He was afterwards appointed Customs Collector at this port, which position he held until a few years of his death. He was married to Olivia, daughter of Dr. Upham of Onslow and grand-daughter of Judge Upham of New Brunswick. They had a family of four daughters: Mary, who was a teacher m the public schools at Pictou; Jessie and Margaret, Mho lived on the old homestead; and Bessie (Mrs. W. A. Patterson). William Campbell died in 1878 and his wife in 1847.

James Campbell lived where James Ramsey now resides and continued from 1831 until 1841 as one of the shipbuilders of Tatamagouche. He died in 1855. His shipyard was near where Bonyman’s factory now stands. One of his ships, the “Colchester”, was at the time (1833) the largest ship to be built in the county, and attracted much attention, many coming from Truro and other places to see her launched. Campbell represented North Colchester in the House of Assembly for one Parliament, 1851-5. In this closely contested election he has opposed by the late Judge Munroe. His wife was Elizabeth Baxter. They had three daughters: Martha (Mrs. Laird), Eliza (Mrs. Poole,) and Lavinia (Mrs. Daniel Barclay), and two sons: William and James A. G. William died as a young man. James succeeded Robert Logan as Collector of Customs and held that position till his death in 1905.

On October 27th, 1824, Coionel DesBarres died at Poplar Grove, Halifax. We have already noted his career till the close of the Seven Years’ War in 1763. An engineer by profession, he engaged himself for the next ten years in preparing charts of the Nova Scotia coast, some of which are of the greatest repute. Afterwards he extended his labours and prepared a more extensive one of North America.

DesBarres, so it is believed, did not consider himself amply rewarded for his many valuable services to his country. It is true that he secured grants of enormous tracts of land. But at that time this land as a revenue producer was a nullity. DesBarres accordingly pressed his claims and, in 1784, was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the newly formed province of Cape Breton. He, in the meanwhile, had been living at Portsmouth, England and, on the 16th day of November of that year, landed at Halifax from whence he proceeded to Sydney where he remained till 1804. His stay at Sydney was characterised by violent quarrels with other government officials. But one thing, which should never be forgotten, remains to his credit. One winter the settlers of Cape Breton were in poverty-stricken conditions. DesBarres, failing to obtain proper relief from the government, spent large sums of his own money in alleviating the sufferings of the people, and at a time when his own financial standing was none too sound. In 1805, he was appointed Governor of Prince Edward Island, which office he held until 1813. While holding these positions of honour, which required a large outlay of money, with a comparatively small income, DesBarres was continually in need of money and determined that his vast estates should furnish him the necessary amounts. So that, as his financial difficulties increased, so did the discontent of his Tatamagouche tenants, many of whom, as we have already seen, left and settled in River John.

DesBarres, in order to prevent the loss of all his tenants, began granting freehold deeds, but only in a limited number, so that up till as late as 1820 the number of land owners at Tatamagouche did not exceed half a score.

He frequently visited Tatamagouche. According to one writer, he found it a quiet retreat when hard pressed by his creditors. Though the following incident can hardly be said to have any connection with the history of Tatamagouche, we think it well worth repeating:

“He and General Haldimand were great friends. They carried on a lively correspondence mostly in French. There is a letter in the Haldimand papers at Ottawa which the Colonel wrote from Tatamagouche. The Colonel wanted a small loan which he could repay. He explains that some sort of an adventurer whom Haldimand had sent to him with letters of introduction had victimised him to the extent of a few hundred pounds, and impaired his credit. So seriously were DesBarri s’ affairs involved that he had come a little hastily in order to have peace. Tnere is a modern touch about this incidental remark.”

DesBarres continued as Governor till 1813, when he removed to Halifax, where he spent the remaining eleven years of his life.

A strong man physically, he endured many hardships and yet lived to be one month of one hundred and three years of age. It is related that he celebrated to the great amusement of his friends, his one hundredth birthday by dancing on a round table.

“It would be difficult to say how far his troubles and services oa the battlefield shortened his life. . . Given an easy life, ne might perhaps have completed the second century, on which he entered with good health and extraordinary vigour. But as he could not forget his losses and mind his griefs no more, he was cut off at the above early age.”

He was a good and brave soldier; strange that he who never feared any foe, often fled in terror before an angry creditor. He possessed a fiery temper. On one occasion, when judgment had been given against him in Court, he, on the spur of the moment, resulted the Chief Justice, Jonathan Belcher. For this offence he was severely reprimanded by the Governor and Council, and forced to apologise. He did so in an evasive way which, however, seemed to satisfy the Court and Council.

The following is an account of his funeral taken from the “Acadian Recorder” of November 6th, 1824:


“On Monday last, about three o'clock, p. m., the funeral procession left his late residence. His Honour, the President, most of the members of His Majesty’s Council, the gentlemen of the Bar, the officers of the Army end Navy, and many other respectable inhabitants attended as mourners by invitation.

“The procession was escorted by a detachment of military and the rear was closed by a number of carriages. On arriving at St. George’s Church, where his remains were deposited, the funeral service was impressively read by the Rev. D. J. T. Twining, at the conclusion of which three volleys were discharged by the troops. Although the. day was very rainy, we have seldom seen a greater attendance or more interest excited on such an occasion. Indeed every reflecting person must have found great cause for meditation in the departure of this venerable man from our fleeting and unsubstantial scene. We saw him on the day before the internment, lying in state. His face was exposed to view, and it exhibited unequivocal marks of a mind originally east in a strong and inflexible mould, while the hand of time appeared to have made but a slight impression on the features. The Chart, which he prepared frc m his own survey of this Province, will give his memory claims upon the gratitude of the nautical world, and could only have been produced by a man of surprising perseverance.

We believe he was a native of Switzerland, and are informed that he held a Captain's Commission under the great Wolfe tit the reduction of Quebec. He was within a month of 103 years of age.”

On the death of DesBarres his son, the Honourable Augustus W., who was a judge of the Newfoundland Bench, took over the management of his father’s estate at Tatamagouche. We quote the following from the History of Newfoundland by D. W. Browse:

“The Hon. Augustus DesBarres was a most correct man. . . He was so young when he received his first appointment as Attorney General of Cape Breton, that, by the advice of friends he wore a pair of false whiskers when he went to receive 1 is commission. He was very celebrated for his ready wit and repartee. Once, when the late Judge Hayward was quoting Chitty to the Bench, his Lordship retorted, 'Obittv, Mr Havard, goodness due. what does Mr. Chitty know about this country? He was never in Newfoundland.’ ”

Augustus DesBarres, either to satisfy his own need for money or to prevent the tenants from removing to other places, immediately began to give freehold deeds to the Tatamagouche tenants. Since m many cases they were unable to pay the agreed price, mortgages were given to DesBarres. In the year 1828, forty-seven lots of one hundred acres each were mortgaged back to the DesBarres estate. But the mortgages, in the course of a few years, were released and the owners acquired an absolute title. DesBarres, while in Newfoundland, continued to sell the land in small lots to suit the buyers.2 Alexander Campbell was his local agent at this place. Campbell was also a Justice of the Peace and his name in that capacity is to be found in nearly all the early land transactions at Tatamagouche. In 1858, DesBarres received his pension and retired from the Bench and returned to spend the rest of his days in England. No longer wishing to be burdened with the worries of the Tatamagouche estate, he, in 1859, gave full power of attorney over these lands to Charles Twining of Halifax, who appointed Samuel Waugh, Esquire, his local agent. By this time the vast estate had greatly dwindled, but rents continued to be collected and lands sold until every acre of the original grant had passed into other hands. Today, DesBarres’ descendants do not lay claim to the title of a single acre of land at Tatamagouche.

In 1826, John Nelson, at the age of twenty-one, settled at Tatamagouche. His father came from the north of Ireland to Musquodoboit, where he married an Archibald. John Nelson married Margaret Ilavman, daughter of William Hayman and settled on Waugh’s River. His son David, who for many years has been one of the leading merchants of the village, represented both Waugh’s River and Tatamagouche in the Municipal Council, and for six years was Warden of the County. Three other Nelson brothers also came to Tatamagouche: Hugh, who lived where George Millar now resides; Robert, who removed to Wallace; and David, who settled on the New Truro Road. The last married Nellie Hayman, who, after his death married Donald Cameron. His son John continued till his death to live on his father’s farm.

In the same year, the Rev. Hugh Ross, who was the first Presbyterian minister to be settled at Tatamagouche, took up his residence on that point of land which to this day bears his name. He was a native of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, and in 1813 came to Pictou County, where nis father had settled at Hopewell. His wife was Flora McKay. He died in 1858, aged sixty-two years. His wife died in 1874, aged seventy-six. In their family were: Mary Ann (Mrs. Walker); Margaret (Mrs. McGregor); Caroline (Mrs. Irving); Isabella, who lived till her death a few years ago on the old homestead; Flora (Mrs. Joseph Spinney) of the village; Jessie McGregor, who for a number of years was a school teacher in New Annan; Elizabeth (Mrs. Thornton); James; John; Peter, and Alexander. Later on we shall deal with the work of Mr. Ross as minister- at Tatamagouche.

About the year 1828, John Bonyman, who was a son of William Bonyman of Rothmase, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, settled on the farm on the French River, now owned by his grandson, William. John Bonyman was a magistrate and one of the first elders in the Tatamagouche Presbyterian congregation. He removed to Illinois. One of his sons, James, settled on the Mill Brook, and another, John, on thf old homestead. A few years after coming to Tatamagouche, he was joined by his brother, Edward from Banffshire, who settled on the farm now owned by John Tattrie, on the New Annan Road. John Bonyman, who erected the woodworking factory in the village, and Alexander Bonyman, merchant, were two of his sons. About 1836, a third brother, James, settled on the farm now owned by his son, John. The only sister to come to this country was Susan, the wife of Robert Cooper.

James Simpson was another early settler of this district. About 1828 he took up a farm on the hill across the river from Cooper’s where he built his house on the very bank of the river. John Simpson is his grandson.

The census of 1827 is the first one in which Tatamagouche appears. In the ones previous to that time, the population of Tatamagouche was included in the return for the district of Colchester. Even in the year 1827, Tatamagouche is linked up with Earltown, so that it would be nearer correct to say that it is a return for North Colchester, rather than for Tatamagouche alone. The following are the returns given for that year: Population, 1104, number of acres of land under cultivation, 2607; number of bushels of wheat, 1820; number of bushels of other grain, 3978; number of bushels of potatoes, 37,780; number of tons of hay, 860; number of horses, 80; number of horned cattle, 818; number of sheep, 1113; number of swine, 788. The year 1827 was very unfavourable to the growth of wheat and the return may be considered not more than one-third of an average crop.

Besides the settlers and their descendants already mentioned, there were at Tatamagouche, in 1828-9, John Smith, on Waugh’s River, near where the late Fred Meagher, Esquire, lived; Charles Simpson; Kenneth McDonald, trader, who had his house in the field of Gordon Clark (where you can still see its site); Dan Hurley, who settled on the Williamson place; John Jollimore; George Stewart, on lot 80, east side; and Samuel S. Tupper, where the late George McConnell lived. These were all the settlers who, up till the year 1828, had any land in this vicinity, at least as far as the records at Truro show, but in all probability there were others who were living here but, as yet, had acquired no interest in any land, hence their names do not appear in the Registry of Deeds at Truro.

About 1830, came another Scotchman, William McCully. He first lived up the French River on the/Donaldson farm which was then owned by the Hon. Alexander Campbell. He then lived on Ross’ Point for a while, but finally removed to New Annan. One son, William, came to Tatamagouche, where he lived on the hill which is still known by his name. Another son, James is still living on the old farm in New Annan Another son, John, also lived in New Annan. Mary (Mrs. Kenneth McLeod) was a daughter. William, Jr., was a ship carpenter at Campbell’s.

During the “thirties” this immigration continued. In 1832, came John Ross, a native of Rosshire, Scotland. In the old country he had served his time as a cartwright but, hoping to improve his condition, came to Nova Scotia and landed at Pictou, whence he came to Tatamagouche.

In Scotland he had known the Lepper family, which previously had settled on the French River, and on arriving at Tatamagouche, he first visited them and then went to work in Campbell’s shipyard. He eventually became foreman but, after building one ship for him. went to work for Edward Kent, who had commenced shipbuilding up the river near James Campbell’s. After building two for Kent, he returned to farm life. He bought and settled down across the river on the lot now owned by his son, Alexander. He was soon joined by his brothers: Alexander in 1833 and George, William, Thomas, and Hugh in 1841 Alexander settled at Barrachois, where his sons William and Jefferson now reside, and the last three at Waidegrave on the farms now owned by Ross Wetherbie, William Kennedy, and Mac Ross respectively.

It was in or about the year 1832, that the first hotel was opened at Tatamagouche. William McConnell was the proprietor and his first inn was the building now known to us all as the “Stirling Hotel”, though since that date it has suffered many changes and received many additions. McConnell, who was a native of Gaiway, was a land surveyor, and before coming to Tatamagouche lived for ten years in New Annan. At his death he was a few years under a hundred. His wife was also a McConnell. One daughter was the wife of the late John Ross. When he left Tatamagouche, he was succeeded in this hospitable business first by Charles D. McCurdy, then by a Copp from Pugwash, who was here somewhere about 1848. Copp in turn gave way to Mrs. Talbot. After she gave up the business, James Blair, the father of Isaac Blair, took over the charge until about the year 1860. During the next five years this business passed through the hands of James Morrison, the Misses Murdoch of New Annan, and Miss Rood, who, in 1865, sold out to Archibald McKenzie from whom Timothy McLellan, the father of the present proprietor, purchased it in 1873.

In the early “thirties”, John Hewitt came from Guys-borough to act as foreman in the shipyards of Alex. Campbell who was then building some of his vessels on the river below James Bryden’s. Hewitt built the Williamson house which, until it was torn down a few years ago, was the oldest house in the village. Subsequently he removed from Tatamagouche.

In 1834, Robert Cooper, who was a native of Aberdeenshire, obtained from DesRarres a grant of land on the French River where his daughter, Mary, now resides. He had two sons: James and William, who both moved away. Ilis brother George settled with him on this farm.

John Lockerbie, who was a native of Castle Dougias, Kirkcudbright, Scotland, came to Tatamagouche in 1835 and settled on the farm now owned by his son, David. On this property, previous to Lockerbie’s arrival, were two log houses. One, between the present house and the river, was built by David Hayman, and the other, on the bank of the river opposite the Pride place, by Thomas Henderson Lockerbie was married in Scotland to Catherine Williamson. Two children, John and Jane (Mrs. Robert Purves), were born there, and Margaret (Mrs. Reid), Mary (Mrs. James Bryden), Martha Bell, Cassie (Mrs. Anderson), David, and Ninian at Tatamagouche.

A few years afterwards came Lockerbie’s brother-law, David Williamson, who was a descendant of Alex. Williamson*, a leading Covenanter of Sanquharf, one of the most historic spots in Scotland and the scene of many a conflict between the Covenanters and their oppressors. Williamson, his wife, and two children came out in a ship named “Burnhope Side”, which was laden with bricks for the Citadel at Halifax. The voyage took over two months. The first person to board the ship at Halifax was Joseph Howe, who soundly rated all those who were concerned with the overloading of the ship. David Williamson took up his abode in what was afterwards known as the Williamson homestead. The sturdy independence and unfailing hospitality which characterized the Covenanters descended in full share to Williamson, and for his kindness and piety he was known throughout the whole countryside. He was an elder in the Tatamagouche Presbyterian congregation. On one occasion during family worship, his barn took fire. He left his reading and saw it burn to the ground without being able to save it, then, returr ng to the house, he took the books and finished prayers. His wife was Mary Carruthers. She predeceased her husband twenty-two years, he living to the good old age of eighty-six. Then son, Alex. Williamson died n Buenos Ayres and a daughter, Mrs. J. W. Kent, still survives.

In 1835, the Bryden brothers, William and Robert came from Old Bains and settled at Tatamagouche. They were both born at Maitland, and were descendants of Robert Bryden, who was one of the Dumfries settlers of Pictou, and who subsequently settled on the Middle River, Pictou County. William was a blacksmith and had his place of business where Gordon Fraser now pursues the same trade. Before purchasing what is now the Reilly property, he lived in the old house of Alexander Campbell. His wife was Susan Kent who, after his death, married Charles Reilly. In their family were: James, of the village; Mary Jane (Mrs. Irvine), who is living in the States; and Elizabeth (Mrs. McCurdy). He died in 1842, aged thirty-four years. Robert, his brother, was also a blacksmith, his shop being directly across from his house in the building now used by Thomas Bonyman for the same purpose. He died in 1902. His wife was Christina Reilly, who died in 1913 at the advanced age of ninety-four. In their family were Charles, Elizabeth, James, Kate, Mary (Mrs. Hathaway) and Robert. Of these the first, Charles, is a Presbyterian minister and at present is connected with the Mission Field in the Canadian West.

About the same time came Neil Ramsey, from Prince Edward Island. He was a blacksmith by trade and had his house and forge in what is now the garden of the Misses Blackwood, close to the church lot and near the Back Street. He did a great deal of the iron work for the ships and subsequently went, in a small measure, into shipbuilding. He afterwards removed to the Island. James Ramsey, the present Collector of Customs, Tatamagouche, is a son.

It was in or about the year 1837, that John Millar, of Pictou, came as a boy of thirteen years to work as a clerk for Alexander Campbell. He was a son of Andrew Millar of Pictou, who was a native of Edinburgh, Scotland In the course of time he was given an interest in the busines of his uncle, the Hon. Alex. Campbell, which now went by the name of Campbell and Company. Subsequently he commenced a mercantile business for himself in the village, his shop being situated at the corner of Mein Street and the Public Lane. He built and lived his married life in the house now owned by Miss McIntosh. Mr. Miliar, until his death in 1895, was one of the most prominent men in the village. Until its dissolution in 1868, he was Colonel of the 6th Colchester Battalion, Nova Scotia Militia. He was one of the representatives of Tatamagouche in the Municipal Council and, for at least one term, was Warden of the County. He was also a Justice of the Peace. A business man of the old school, he introduced into whatever matter he had on hand, those rules of punctuality which characterised the business men of that time. In later years, when he and Henderson Gass drove on week days from their homes to their places of business in the village, it has been said that they were so punctual that when they opened their shops in the morning, it was a signg.1 for the people to set their watches at eight o’clock. He was married to Louisa Patterson, a daughter of Abram Patterson of Pictou. Geoige, their third son, is a Presbyterian minister at Alberton, Prince Edward Island. Alexander, their youngest son, succeeded his father in business. He was a municipal councillor for Tatamagouche West for one term. He is n6w residing at Sydney, N. S. Another son, William, is engaged in railway work in the American West.

In 1837, Robert Purves came from Pictou to engage first in lumbering and subsequently in shipbuilding. He purchased a lot from Mortimer in 1839 and began building along the shore below where the late W. A. Patterson subsequently lived. He also built a vessel across the harbour on Oak Island, which then became known as “Ship Yard” Island. His house was erected close to where the railway now runs. After conducting business here for a number of years, he removed to Wallace, but he subsequently returned to Tatamagouche, and built that large residence known as “Oak Hall”, which remained the property of his daughter, Mary, till it was purchased a year or. so ago by E. L. W. Haskett-Smith. In his business transactions he appeared to be most successful and, at his death in 1872, he was considered a well-off man. His son, Robert, was for many years the postmaster in the village. He also conducted a general stoie. A daughter, Mary, lived in the old home till a few years ago, when she removed to Sydney, where she died In the winter of 1916. Mrs. Wallis, in England, is another daughter.

It was in or before the year 1838 that Robert D. Cutten came from Onslow to Tatamagouche. He was by trade both a tinsmith and sparmaker. His first shop was in what is now the orchard of Gavin Clark. He built the house now owned by Mrs. Robert Jollimore. He was married to Hannah Pryde. Three of his sons, Edward, David, and William, are now residing in the States, wheie the family removed some time in the ‘‘sixties”.

In or about the same year, John Irvine came to Tatamagouche from Pictou to work at his trade as block-maker in the shipyard of Alexander Campbell. His first house was built on the west side of the main road, a little west of Mrs. Crowe’s. About this time a number of men who were employed in the various yards built residences along this road, so that it was commonly known as “Mechanic Street”. Subsequently Irvine built and lived in the house now owned by Arthur Cunningham. He was accidently killed by falling from a beam in his barn. His wife was Maysie MacKinnon. Their family of six boys are all dead. William died of yellow fever while on a voyage to Havana. James moved to the Southern States where he died only a few years ago. The other members of the family were George, Joseph, Robert, and Washington.

By this time the shipbuilding industry had reached almost gigantic proportions. A hurried glance at Appendix I, which gives a list of vessels built at Tatamagouche, will show that during the “thirties” there were, as a rule, three or four ships, averaging 200 tons each, built each year at Tatamagouche. The years 1836-7-8-9 were extremely busy ones. “The Mersey”, a ship of 734 tons, built in 1837, was the largest one at that time to be launched in North Colchester. The total tonnage built here in 1837-9 amounted to somewhere around 5,500 tons. .

In 1840-1 there was a serious financial depression which had full effect in Nova Scotia. Freights were low and there was little or no market for ships. Many of the Nova Scotian builders went insolvent. At Tatamagouche though suffering seriously they managed to weather the gale and, in a year conditions were again normal. From that date, shipbuilding in Tatamagouche, as elsewhere in Nova Scotia, had a new lease of life, and during the following years, the population of Tatamagouche continued to be increased by a number who came here either to build vessels or to work in the yards. But before dealing with the events of these years, we may note two or three fatal accidents which occurred in this community sometime during the years 1830-40.

One of these took place in the year 1836 at the inn of old William Currie. John Doull, who was one of the early settlers at Brule, had come on horseback from Halifax, whither he had been on business, and stopped at the inn for his dinner. After his meal, while he was endeavouring to unhitch his horse, it kicked him on the head, causing almost immediate death.

Another tragic death which occurred about the same time, possibly a few years later, was that of a man by the name of Regan, who had previously belonged to Halifax. He had been engaged in hauling logs and was unloading them on the bank of Waugh’s River near the small creek, a little east of where Abe Currie now resides. He had unhitched one horse for the purpose of hauling the heavy iogs off the waggon, and while putting the chain around a stick, the hook caught in his trousers at the ankle. Before he could free himself, the horse took sudden fright, and he was dragged helplessly on the ground. All his efforts to loose himself or stop the horse were in vain, but his cries attracted the attention of Murray Currie, a son of John Currie, who immediately ran to the road in an endeavour to stop the horse. Before he could reach the animal, a small dog which was with him had by barking and biting so frightened it, that all his attempts were futile. The small brook near McCullough’s was then crossed by a log bridge, on which repairs were being made, and while Regan was dragged over it, a loose stick ran into his side. The frightened animal continued to drag man and stick until it was finally caught near where Archie Waugh now lives. The unfortunate man's injuries were most serious and in a short time he died.

But the most shocking accident which ever occurred in the community was the one that resulted in the death of a young child of Hector Sutherland, an early settler, who was then living on the farm now owned by George McKay near the Mine Hole. His house was a small log one close to which extended the primeval forest. A short time previous to the time of the accident, there had been a heavy wind storm which had uprooted several of the large trees near the house. In his spare moments, Sutherland, with the assistance of a neighbour would saw these trees into blocks for shingles. One day while they were engaged at this work, the child was sent bv its mother to call them to their meal. As neither the child nor the men returned, the mother became alarmed, and, on going to her husband, she was surprised to learn that they had neither seen nor heard of the child. Word was at once sent to all the neighbours and to the village, and a search party organized. Alexander Campbell, so it is said, not only offered a large reward for the recovery of the child, but allowed all the men in his yards to join in the search and even sent provisions (including a good supply of rum) to the men who were searching in the woods. No trace of the child was found and after a day or two the search was given up, all knowing that by that time the child would have perished from Lunger and exposure. Some time previous, Indians had been seen in the vicinity of the Mine Hole and it was generally believed that they were responsible for the disappearance of the child. A few days later, other Indians, induced by the prospect of obtaining so large a reward, and believing that some of their less worthy brothers had been guilty of stealing the child, went as far east as Cape Breton in search of the missing one, but they returned without accomplishing anything. Several weeks after the mystery was cleared up, but in a most ghastly manner. A quarrel between a cat and a dog attracted the attention of the parents, who were surprised and shocked to find the cause of the quarrel was none other than the hand of their lost child. When going to call them, it had climbed up on the upturned root of the tree on which the men were working. When it had been severed from its trunk, its weight carrying it back, had crushed the child to death. There the body had remained unknown to all, till the dog, discovering it, had brought it once more to the sight of the parents.

Among others who, during the late “thirties” and the ‘forties” came to Tatamagouche and who subsequently became some of its leading citizens, we may note the following: James McKeen, Edward Kent, Archibald Patterson, Charles Reilly, Robert Logan, William Fraser, and Henderson and Robert Gass.

James McKeen was a native of St. Mary’s, Guysborough County, and came to Tatamagouche to take over the tanning business then operated by James Campbell and James Hepburn of Pictou. This business he conducted till shortly before his death in 1894. He was married to Mary, a sister of Charles Reilly. In their family were John, who was manager of the Bank of Nova Scotia at Amherst, Ottawa and Halifax, and who in 1915 was elected a controller of the City of Halifax; James, who is a Presbyterian minister at Orono, Ontario; Charles, who resides on the old homestead; and Kate, Jessie, Emily (Mrs. Maxwell), Janie (Mrs. Abram H. Patterson), Sophia (Mrs. E. D. Roach), Elizabeth (Mrs. McGregor), Annie, and Hannah.

Edward Kent was the grandson of James Kent, who was born in Alloa, Scotland, in 1749. His father was John Kent who lived in Lower Stewiacke, where Edward Kent was born in 1823. Coming to Tatamagouche, he engaged in blacksmithing first, then in shipbuilding and other mercantile business. He erected the house now owned by Dr. Murray. In 1851, he built his first vessel, the “Little Pet”, which was launched up the river below where Abe Currie now lives. After this, until shortly before his death in 1870, he continued at the same business. His wife was Jessie Williamson, who still survives. In his family were David, of the village; James, in the States; Roach and Alex, in California; Mary (Mrs. Ingraham); Jeanette; Florence, who was a distinguished actress; Jessie; and Janie Bell.

Archibald Patterson was a grandson of John Patterson, who was one of the Pictou pioneers of the “Hector” His father was Abram Patterson, of the same place. He first came to Tatamagouche and engaged in trading in lumber and other business, but it was not till 1854 that he built in his shipyards, where Bonvman’s factory now stands, his first vessel, the “MacDuff. In 1862, Patterson was appointed a member of the Legislative Council, a position which he held till Confederation. In 1868 he retired from business in Tatamagouche and moved to Halifax where he was Inspector in the Inland Revenue Department. He was married to Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of the Hon. Alexander Campbell. Mrs. Patterson is now living in Truro.

A. C. Patterson who, till his death in 1913, was a barrister in Truro, was a son. Mrs. J. W. Revere was a daughter.

Charles Reilly, of Irish descent, came from Pictou to Tatamagouche and worked for a while in Campbell’s tannery. His first house was a small one built in the front of what is now the house lot of C. K. McLellan. For a number of years he lived there with his sisters until they were married to James McKeen, Robert Bryden, and James McLearn Reilly was married to Susan Kent, the widow of William Bryden. Subsequently he lived on the property now owned by his daughters Misses Annie and Sarah. Here, till his death, he carried on his trade as a butcher. He was for a short time in the shipbuilding business and built a few vessels on the river below where James Bryden now resides. William Reilly, of the village, is his only surviving son. Another son, John, died in the States only a year or so ago.

Robert Logan came to Tatamagouche from New Glasgow and was employed for a number of years as clerk for William Campbell. He became interested in shipbuilding and built for a number of years on the river a little below Clark’s wharf. After retiring from business, he was appointed Collector of Customs at this port. His wife was Mary Bryden, sister of Robert Bryden. One son, Capt. William, died at sea from an attack of yellow fever. Another son, Robert, and a daughter, Anna Bell, are now living in Bridgewater, Nova Scotia.

In 1840, William Fraser, of Pictou, built here a brig, “James”, for James Cameron of Halifax. In a few years he became foreman for the Hon. Alex. Campbell and after Campbell’s death he continued to act in that capacity for the firm till shipbuilding at Tatamagouche was of the past. He built and lived in the house in Mechanic Street which is now owned by C. N. Cunningham. Ilis wife was a sister of Mrs. Irvine Two of his sons, Marmaduke and Howard Primrose, met a tragic death by being drowned in the wreck of the “Indian Chief” on the Goodwin Sands. One daughter, Elizabeth, was married to Alexander Williamson and lived until her death in South America. Another daughter, Alice, is now living in Westville. Mr. Fraser was a most efficient foreman, and some of his ships were of the finest built in Nova Scotia. He was one of the most highly respected men in the village and from 1860 till he removed to Pictou, was an elder in the Tatamagouche Presbyterian congregation.

Henderson and Robert Gass were brothers, sons of John Gass who came from Dumfries, Scotland, and settled at Pictou in 1816. The former, a saddler by trade, came to Tatamagouche about 1848 and took up his residence on the street next to John Millar’s. He was captain of the Lake Road Company of the Nova Scotia Militia. His wife was Eliza Irish. He died in the winter of 1912. Among his children are: Mrs. James Ramsey of the village; Miss Kate Gass, Cambridge; George, of Trenton; and William, of Sackville.

Robert Gass was a shoe-maker and came to Tatamagouche about the same time as—perhaps a little later than—his brother. He died n 1894. One son, Robert, is now living in the United States.

Later on, it may be noted, there came another Robert Gass, who took up the Blockhouse farm and to distinguish him from his cousin, Robert the shoe-maker, they were commonly called “Shoe-maker Bob” and “Blockhouse Bob”. Robert (Blockhouse) Gass was a son of Joseph Gass, who came to Pictou from Dumfries with his brothers Robert and John in 1816, but who removed to Cape John in 1842. Robert Gass was twice married to sisters, Misses Perrin of River John. Several children by his first marriage still survive. They are: Will, in Bass River; Mrs. Till and Mrs. Elwood, of Boston; and Mrs. McLellan in the West.

Among others, who in the early “forties” lived on Mech amc Street, we may note William Higgins, a shoe-maker, and James Grant, a blacksmith. Both subsequently removed to Wallace.

Until the time of the arrival of these families, nearly all the houses and places of business at Tatamagouche were on the west side of French River in the vicinity of Campbell’s shipyards, and there seemed every indication that the site of the future village would be there. From Campbell’s to Waugh’s there were houses only at rare intervals and outside the cluster of buildings at the former place, there was nothing that could assume even the name of a hamlet. In fact, as late as the “forties” there were only four buildings between Wm. Campbell’s and McConnell’s tavern. These were the houses of Neil Ramsey and Mungo Heughan. the old Presbyterian meeting house and the small shop of John Blackwood. Alex. Campbell, however, who either owned or controlled nearly all the land near the French River, was averse to selling, and men found it difficult, if not impossible, to obtain land from him. James Campbell and others who owned the lots where the present village is situated, had no such aversion. They were willing and ready to dispose of their land. Then the shore along these lots was well suited for shipyards, as a comparatively deep channel ran close to the bank. It was for these reasons that the shipbuilders and others who came in the "forties”, located where they did, and thus, in a great measure, determined the location of the present village.

A man named Young is said to have been the first to erect a shop in the present village. He came here interested in shipbuilding, and built a small store near the site of Thomas Bonyman's forge. This store was afterwards purchased by Robert Logan and moved down to the corner of Main Street and New Annan Road where, enlarged and with frequent repairs, it stands till this day, still in use as a place of business.

One of the first tailors to come to Tatamagouche was Mungo Heughan. He had been employed aboard a man-of-war and, after leaving the sea, settled down for the rest of his days at Tatamagouche. He had his shop and house on the east corner of the present Manse property. For years he was Superintendent of the village Sunday School; in all probability of the first regular Sunday School to be held here. John Heughan, who settled on the New Annan Road, and James Heughan, of Cariboo are two of his sons.

John McDowl. who came here in 1841 from River John, wras another tailor. He lived in the house now owned by J. T. B. Henderson, Esq. Previous to his coming, one Telfer, who came in the eariy “thirties,” and who also was a tailor, had his shop in this building. John McDowl, the veteran engine driver is a son.

It was about this time, that Stephen Rood, a ship carpenter, settled in Tatamagouche. He built and lived in the house now owned by Charles Brown, Charles Rood, of New Glasgow, is a son.

It was in 1810 that the Rev. Robert Blackwood came to Tatamagouche. He first lived in a house near where Mrs. Crowe now resides but subsequently he removed to the house now owned by Charles Brown. His wife was Anne McCara, daughter of the Rev. John McCara of Scotland. In their family were Jessie, who was the wife of Rev. Dr. Smith of Upper Stewiacke; David who lived in Halifax; and William who remained in Tatamagouche. The last was one of the best known men and merchants in North Colchester. For a time he was in public life and represented the Northern District of Colchester in the House of Assembly from 1863 to 1867. In politics he was a strong Liberal and an opponent of Confederation.

About the same time (1840) David Murdock and his wife, Sara Wilson, both from Scotland, settled at what has since been known as the Murdock farm, on Waugh’s River. The property, as we have seen, had previously been owned by William Currie. Murdock had been a game keeper in the estate of a Scotch nobieman, and his wife had been the house-keeper. He came out first and then she joined him. He met her in Truro and conveyed her over the mountain in a cart. They had no children and the farm was given to his nephew, David Murdock, father of the present owner John Murdock.

One of the last families that came directly from Scotland to settle at Tatamagouche, was the Clark family of Aberdeen. It would be sometime around 1842-3, when two brothers, John and James, who were the first to come out, arrived at Tatamagouche. They landed at Halifax, and from there walked to Tatamagouche. Often, in later years, they used to relate how, on a Sunday morning, when the people were coming from the church, they reached the village in their bare feet, and had their first meal in what was to be their future home, at the house of Mungo Heughan.

John settled on the Mill Brook, near what is known as the Peugh Bridge. At the time of the gold rush to Australia, he, in company with his brother, went and remained for a number of years in that colony. On his return he lived for a year on the Hubert Bell farm at Waidegrave, and then went into business in the village. In 1871, he built the shop now owned by J. M. Bonyman & Company. In 1860, he was elected elder in the Tatamagouche Presbyterian congregation, a position which he faithfully held until his death. For years he was superintendent of the village Sunday School, to which office he gave his unfaltering attention till advancing years made it impossible for him to perform its duties. Ilis venerable figure and kindly word will always be remembered by those who, as boys and girls, sat on Sundays beneath his charge. In August, 1901, he met a sudden death, by being drowned while bathing in the river below his house.

James Clark, on his return from Australia, settled on the farm now owned by his son, Sydney, at Bayhead. He for number of years was one of the representatives of Tatamagouche in the Municipal Council. He was also a Justice of the Peace. He died in 1891.

There were four other members of this family who also settled in Tatamagouche: George, Charles, Robert, and William. The last three took up farms on the Mill Brook. George early entered into business for himself in the village. Beginning in a small way, he built up a prosperous business and soon became the leading hardware merchant of the village. So successful was he, that at the time of his death he was the most influential and probably the wealthiest man in North Colchester. In politics he was a strong Liberal and a firm believer in the principles of Free Trade. In 1886, and again in 1890, he was elected to represent Colchester in tue House of Assembly. He died in May, 1905.

The last settler to come directly from Scotland to Tatamagouche was David Donaldson, of Perthshire. In 1819, he left Scotland and, after a voyage of six weeks, landed at Pictou. He first settled at Brule, on the farm now owned by his grandson. A. P. Semple. He built his first log house close to the creek which ran through his farm. At the time of his arrival, this fine property was heavily wooded with hemlock. He appears to have been particularly successful as a farmer. The land there is very fertile and it is said that in a few years, He was able, one winter to sell a ton of flour made from the wheat grown on his own place. After remaining for seven years at Brule, he removed to French River, near the bridge now known by his name. At the same time there came to Tatamagouche with Donaldson, his sons-in-law, Wm. Menzie and James Semple. The former went first to Fox Harbour, Cumberland County and then to the “Back Road” to River John. Subsequently he came to the village to live. James Semple remained on the farm at Brule. Six years later came a third son-in-law, Thomas Malcolm, who settled at Brule where his son, Robert D. Malcolm, now resides.

David Donaldson was married to Mary Hutchinson, of Perthshire. He died in 1891, aged eighty-four, and his ‘wife in 1895, aged ninety-two. Their sons were Robert, John, and George, who removed to New Zealand and Australia, and William and David who remained on their father’s farm. The daughters were Agnes (Mrs. Menzie), Elizabeth (Mrs. Malcolm), Cecelia (Mrs. Semple), Jane (Mrs. Langille) of the village, and Mary (Mrs. Wm. Langille), French River The last three are the only surviving members of the family. Mrs. Menzie, being the eldest, had reached maturity before leaving Scotland, and was the only member of the family to speak the Scottish dialect.

Along with shipbuilding came also the sister industry, lumbering. As we have already noted, the commencement of this industry was the sale of square pine timber in the Old Country. It was soon eclipsed in importance by shipbuilding but, nevertheless, it continued to give employment to many men, particularly in the winter months. At first the lumber was manufactured entirely by hand, the large logs being sawn into boards or other material by the laborious efforts of two men on a whip saw. With the open ng of the English market, and the introduction of water mills, the industry went forward in leaps and bounds. Small mills, we have already noted, were constructed by the French, but these were probably used for grinding grain more than for sawing purposes. William Waugh, the Bon of old Wellwood Waugh, is said to have been about the first to build a water mill at Tatamagouche far sawing lumber. Certain it is that he erected one at a very early date on the small stream which is still known as the “Mill Brook”. Later on the Hon. Alex. Campbell built a small mill on the Black Brook, just a little east of where it is now -crossed by the road to Balfron. The remains of the old dam can yet be seen. During the "thirties,” a number of others were constructed. William Campbell built one on the French River on the lot now owned by James Ramsey. Abram Patterson, of Pictou, also built a small mill on the Mill Brook branch of the French River. During the subsequent years, a dozen or so of similar mills were erected at various places on French and Waugh Rivers and up till the time of the introduction of steam mills they did all the sawing.

About the early “fifties” Abram Patterson, who was now actively engaged in the lumbering industry, came to live at Tatamagouche. He bought the property subsequently owned by his son, the late W. A. Patterson. Engaged with him in this business was James Primrose of Pictou. For a time they operated a mill at Porteoues, French River. They then commenced cutting some of the larger and better lumber on the mountain lots and erected a mill near Farm Lake. They were the first to commence here the planing and other manufacturing of lumber.

Aoram Patterson was a son of John Patterson (who came to Pictou in the “Hector”) and was married to Christina, the eldest daughter of Dr. MacGregor, the pioneer Presbyterian minister in Pictou. One of his sons, Archie, as we have noted, was engaged for a number of years in shipbuilding at Tatmagouche. His youngest son, W. A. Patterson, Esq., continued in the lumber business. In 1874 he was elected as a Conservative to represent Colchester in the Provincial House. He was a member of that House till 1886, being re-elected in 1878 and 1882. In 1891 he was elected to the Dominion House of Commons and sat in that House till his retirement from political life in 1896. He died June, 1917.

The year 1847 was a hard one for this community. A financial depression caused the bottom to fall out of the ship market and, consequently, there was no profitable sale for ships of any kind. Many of the shipbuilders of Nova Scotia lost heavily. With scarcely a moment’s warning, thousands of dollars and the wealth of years were swept away. It is said that Alexander Campbell was the only timberer on the North Shore who remained solvent, but this is probably an exaggeration. He, though he suffered severely, was able to continue his business. This depression, as the ones of ’25 and '40, soon passed away and times in a year or so were better than ever.

These years from 1825 to 1847 were crowded with many events and crowned with much prosperity' for the people of Tatamagouche. Every year, as the log cabins decreased, the frame dwellings increased. The settlers no longer struggled for the necessaries of life alone, for into their homes had already had a few of the simplest luxuries. No longer was it necessary to carry provisions through the woods from Truro, or along the shore from Pictou, for a dozen or more merchants were here with their stores full of various goods and commodities. Labor was abundant and wages, for those days were good. Tatamagouche was yet to see darker days by far than those of 1825-47.

One great improvement was in the roads. When the first settlers came here the only road, or rather trail, was across the mountains to Truro. If we can rely upon the old French records, this road was then in good condition, and in all probability its course was followed by the subsequent settlers. To Pictou there was no path whatever, and as late as 1793, people went to that place by following along the shore to River John and from there they would either strike through the woods or continue along the shore. We have been unable to ascertain when the road from Pictou to Tatamagouche was opened, but in 1833, we find that the sum of Ł40 was granted by the Assembly for a bridge at Currie’s (.Murdock’s). The road must have been opened a considerable time before this date as, for a number of years, the river was forded at that place. The first road through the village ran south of the present main road, somew'here back of where James Ramsey now resides. What is now commonly known as the “Back Street” is a continuance of the old road.

The first bridge across the French River was built about the same place as the present one. The next one was placed higher up on the bank and nearer the main river. It must have been constructed at the early period before shipbuilding had become of any great importance. The bridge, as then located, did away with the long and inconvenient Campbell’s and McCully’s Hills, but its position prevented the launching of any large ships from Campbell’s yards and consequently it was, when being rebuilt, moved further up the river to its former site. It was, of course, a wooden structure. The writer has been unable to ascertain in what year it was built but, in 1839,4 the sum of Ł1U0 was granted for the erection of a bridge over the French River and it was, in all probability, during that year that this bridge was built. At the time of its construction, a petition was presented to the Government praying that a draw be placed in the bridge so that those who lived further up the river would not be precluded from shipbuilding. The petition stated that the river was navigable one mile above the bridge for ships of twenty feet draught. We rather fear that the then citizens of Tatamagouche were more eager to obtain the draw than to sustain their accustomed reputation for veracity. The present steel structure, which is on the same site, was built sometime during the “eighties”. The first bridge at Lockerbie’s was built on the site of the present one, some time about 1840, possibly a year or so later.

In 1825 people at Tatamagouche had little intercourse with the outside world. They were a little colony by themselves. In 1847 this was no longer true. Her ships sailed to every quarter of the globe, and to her harbour came vessels bearing the Hags of a score of nations and manned by sailors of various nationalities and speaking a dozen different tongues. With the exceptions of Halifax, Yarmouth, Sydney, Pictou, and possibly a few others, Tatamagouche had as much intercourse with the outside world as any other port in Nova Scotia. Improved reads, too, led to more communication with nearby places.

In regard to early postal service, we have little information. Wellwood Waugh was, as we have seen, the first courier between Truro and Tatamagouche. At that time the only interprovmcial mail coming from what is now the Upper Provinces, was landed at Tatamagouche. The sailing vessel “Mercury” made regular trips to and from Quebec. It was evidently this mail which Waugh carried as far as Truro. Who succeeded him in this responsible duty is unknown, After a time this method of bringing the mails from Quebec was abandoned, and apparently they were brought all the way by land for, we find that in 1821, the inhabitants of Pugwash, Wallace, and Tatamagouche presented a petition to the House of Assembly for a sum to be set aside to defray the expense of a weekly mail service to those places from the main post road that ran over the mountains in the vicinity of Westchester. There is no record to show that the prayer of this petition was ever granted, and we have never heard of any mail route running through those places to Tatamagouche.

About 1843, a tri-weekly mail was established between Halifax, Pictou and various points along the northern shore of Nova Scotia. A man by the name of Arnison drove this mail from Pictou to Tatamagouche. Many can yet recollect him as, driving into the village over Lockerbie’s Hill, he would announce his coming by the blowing of a horn. Subsequently, James Ulair, who came to Tatamagouche about the middle “fifties”, drove the mail from Pictou to Tatamagouche, In Belcher’s Almanac this mail, running to Pictou, Wallace and Amherst, is said to have run tri-weekly, but those whose memory reaches back into those years say that at that time the mail came through Tatamagouche but once a week There was also a mail from Truro which at first came at irregular intervals, usually brought by a man or boy on horseback One of the last drivers was Tim Archibald, who drove two horses tandem.

During the “sixties”, when the “Heather Bell” was plying between Brule and Charlottetown, mails were received here twice a week from both Halifax and the Island.

In 1867, “Blair’s Express”, owned by James Blair, ran over the mountain to Truro. We take the following from Belcher’s Almanac of that date:

“Blair's Express, a taal waggon, leaves Truro tor Tatamagouche, Waliaee and Pugwabli on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, returning on the intervening days.”

With the opening of the railway to Pictou and the main line through Wentworth, we received regular mails from those places.

As far as we are aware, the first postmaster at Tatamagouche was Wm. McConnell, who, as we have seen, conducted a tavern where the "Stirling Hotel" is now situated. The writer has seen a letter bearing date 1843 addressed “c/o Wm. McConnell, postmaster”. About 1855, possibly before, John Lombaid was appointed postmaster. Four years later the office was moved up the road and kept by James McLearn In 1863, Wm. Fraser* became postmaster and, in 1866, Isaac Blair was appointed. Three years later, Robert Purves became postmaster, and held the position till his death when he was succeeded by his widow. At her death, in 1904, Dr. Johnson was appointed.

The years following the depression of 1847 were busy ones for the shipbuilders at Tatamagouche. The English market was good and there arose a demand in Newfoundland for vessels of about 100 tons built especially for seal fishing. Several who had not previously gone into the business began at once building vessels of this type. The year 1857 was long known, indeed to this day, as the "big year” at Tatamagouche. In that year fourteen vessels were on the stocks at one time. Campbells, Purves, Logan, Kent, Patterson, Reilly, Robert Bryden, Wm. Blackwood, and B. F. McKay all built that year. Some had two or three. The whole shore from Lockerbie’s to Ross’ Point was one busy hive of industry. One vessel was built on the shore across from Campbell’s Point, another one on Ross’ Point, two or three at Campbells’, one at the mouth of the small creek which runs through Cordon Clark's field, three or four in the yards of Kent, Logan and Patterson, and two up below James Bryden’s, where Reilly and McLaren were building. This was the high water mark for shipbuilding at Tatamagouche. For a few years markets continued good and all went well. But every few years there came a repetition of the financial crises which we have already noted and then the entrance of steamers into the work of ocean transportation was gradually ruining the market for wooden sailing vessels.

On the first day of April, 1854, there occurred an unusually heavy freshet. The exceptionally heavy snow-fall of the winter had all remained on the ground until the beginning of a heavy rainstorm which commenced on one of the last days of March. Many of the bridges on Waugh’s and French Rivers were swept away, and a large jam of ice formed fiom Patterson’s wharf across to Steele’s Island. The waters, in rising, engulfed the island and flooded the barn of John Steele which was built on the low slope of the mainland near the island. All his cattle were drowned. The following account of the storm is taken from the diary of the Rev. Robert Blackwood:

“A most tearful storm and freshet on the first, of April, 1854. It melted the snow, raised the ice, and carried before it bridges to an claiming extent on Waugh’s River. Campbell’s, Murdock’s and Lockerbie’s bridges were carried away with one general sweep. The river must, with 'he ice, have raised eight or ten feet. One poor man, Steele, lost thirty head of sheep, twelve head of cattle, one horse, and his buildings, to which the freshet never rose before.”

One who, during the “fifties”, entered into business at Tatamagouche, and who was the first to erect a shop of two stories in the viiiage, Was Stewart Kislepaugh. His was such a peculiar character that we must give him more than passing notice. His father had been a French soldier who during the retreat from Moscow had served under Napoleon. After the war, the old soldier came to Nova Scotia and finally settled on Tatamagouche Mountain. There, one of his neighbours was a man who, during the same wars had fought under the banner of England, and the old warriors rather than forget their quarrels of the past, showed a disposition to fight them over once again. Stewart, as a young man, came to work in the village, first as a clerk for Robert Purves and then for James Campbell, who ran a small store near where J. R. Ferguson now resides. Eventually he commenced business for himself His shop was destroyed by fire. Stewart had just opened a cask of turpentine and some of the contents had been spilled on the floor, A number of men were in the store at the time, and one of them who was smoking remarked “Stewart, you don't know the great risk you are running with that turpentine.” He was alluding to the danger of the. At the same time a lighted match fell from his hands, and, before the men could think or act, the interior of the building burst into flames. He rebuilt, this time a building of two stories, where the store of James Bonyman & Co. now stands. In 1862 this shop was also destroyed by fire. Stewart was left a poor man and, for a number of years was absent in South America. Returning, he found himself in poverty. Gone was all his former prosperity and, like King Lear, he was content to live in a mere hovel. He was a man of much intelligence, was well read and possessed a great deal of public spirit. Perhaps more than anything else he was noted for his ready wit and practical jokes. Many of his sayings and stories are still remembered and retold, always with appreciation. During his last years he lived in an old shop across the road from where D. W. Menzie now resides. A great part of his time he used in doing acts of kindness to those whom he could in any way assist. There are many today who regard his memory with the warmest feelings, and think with sadness that a personality which had so much of the finest qualities accomplished so little. “Stewart’s” pump, which, due mainly to his labours, was preserved for the public, stands as his monument, and daily recalls the memory of this peculiar but zealous citizen. He died in the winter of 1894.

About 1850, James Blair came from North River to take over the hotel at Tatamagouche. He also ran the stage from Truro to Tatamagouche and Wallace. His wife was a Miss Lyons. Isaac Blair is his son.

In 1854, William McKenzie came, as a young man, from Pictou to act as a foreman in the shipyard of Archibald Patterson. He was a man strong in body and in mind, and in every way typical of the splendid, "virile people which at that time Nova Scotia and Pictou County in particular, seemed able to produce. As a ship foreman he had few equals, being at all times able to hold the confidence of his men and employers; and it has often been sail that he was able to get more work out of his men than any other foreman of his time. In later days, when he retired from active work., his advice was readily sought after m matters relating to the construction of wooden ships. He died in the winter of 1911, aged eighty-seven.

The first carriage builder to come to Tatamagouche was John A. McCurdy, of Onslow. In the early “fifties”, he commenced business in a shop about opposite the present Post Office. He was married to Elizabeth Bryden and lived in the house now owned by Dr. Sedgwick. His two children are Mrs. C. N. Cunningham of the village, and Gordon, who is Police Inspector of the Rainy River District. About 1860, McCurdy moved back to Onslow and Alex. McLeod commenced the same business in the shop now owned by James Perrin.

In 1854, James McLearn came from Halifax to Tatamagouche. He built the house now owned by Mrs. Menzie. He engaged in shipbuilding and built a number of vessels in the yards below where James Bryden now resides. He also bad charge of the first telegraph office to be established in the village. His wife was a sister of Charles Reilly. He removed, first to California, then to Halifax, where he died.

Those who, during the subsequent years, have come to live at Tatamagouche are so well known to the public of today that to deal with them individually would be superfluous. Some are still with us; others have but recently passed away. Of those who, during or about the years 1855-65, came to Tatamagouche from various places in Pictou County, we may mention: Daniel Barclay, Alexander Matheson, and David Eraser, merchants; Alex. McLeod, carriage builder; Andrew Urquhart and George Douglas, blacksmiths; and D. A. Eraser, tailor. Others who, about these years, were in business at Tatamagouche were Archibald Mingo and Jeremian Murphy who built what was long after known as Clark’s wharf.

Concerning those who are still alive, or who have but recently passed away, the writer has, for obvious reasons, forborne to make any more than passing remarks. But a most justifiable exception may be made in the cases of Rev. Dr. Sedgwick and the late E. I). Roach, M. D. These two men were, as indeed one is today, for so many years the leading and outstanding men of this community, that we are constrained to add a few words of tribute, imperfect as they may be, to their character and service. Roth came to Tatamagouche in the fall of 1860 as young men fresh from college and entered with all the ardour, of early manhood into their professional duties. Both, too, belonged to those professions which bring their members into the /closest contact with the people. There is not a home in this community but has, especially in the time of sorrow and trouble, received these men as comforters and. healers of soul and body. With the life and service of Dr. Sedgwick we shall deal in the chapter on the Churches and their Ministers.

Dr. Roach was a native of Cumberland County where he received his early education. After graduating from Pennsylvania Medical College, he came to Tatamagouche where he continued for forty years to practise his profession. The greater part of that time he was the only medical man residing in North Colchester. As a professional man he in his time, stood high. Though the study of medicine had, because of the progress of science, become almost entirely different at the close of his practice to what it was at its beginning, he was, nevertheless, because of his ability as a student, able to keep well up in the study of the modern methods and treatments. He was a man of mild temperament and had the heart of a child. After forty years’ experience with sickness and death, he never seemed to lose his sensitiveness to pain and sorrow, and sympathy for the sick prompted him on many occasions to continue at work when he himself was far from a well man. We believe that we can say, without fear of contradiction, that no man ever held a firmer grip on the affections of the people of Tatamagouche than did “the old doctor”. It is no disgrace to him to say he died a poor man. Had he received all the remuneration which he, in justice to himself, could have demanded, he would have died wealthy. His reward was not riches but rather to be held in grateful remembrance by those who had experienced his skill as a physician, or had felt the sympathy of a friend who never failed.

We have already mentioned the old Nova Scotia Militia, and traced its course at Tatamagouche as late as 1825. We shall now make a few further remarks upon this subject.

In 1827, the militia throughout the province appears to have been re-organized. The 2nd Battalion, Colchester Regiment, was to be composed of men from the northern half of the present county of Colchester. In this year the following officers were from Tatamugouche and vicinity: Capt. Alex. Campbell, 2nd Lieuts. Samuel Waugh and M. H. Wilson. Two years later the following additional names appear: 1st Lieut. Rufus McNutt, 2nd Lieuts. M. Waugh and Charles McCurdy, and Edwin Carritte, Surgeon In 1831, Alexander Campbell was promoted to Major and Edward Langille made 2nd Lieut. In 1833, there was another re-organization and we find that the 3rd Battalion of the Chichester Regiment was made up of men from what is now the District of Stirling. We give the officers in full: Lt. Col. Alexander Campbell’", Major R. B. Dickson, Captains J McL. Dickson, D. Dewar, D. Baxter, Alex. Conkey, Hugh Munroe, George Ross, and D. C. McCurdy; 1st Lieuts. Edw. Langille, John McKay, M. Waugh, R Murray, and Wm. Scott; 2nd Lieuts. John Langille, James Campbell, David Wilson, Donald Ross and D. McKay; Adjutant J. McL. Dickson; J. B. Davidson, Quartermaster. In 1841, Alex. Conkey was appointed Major and the following 2nd Lieuts.: John Lombard, Wm. McConnell, John Millar, John Lockerbie, Wm. Bryden, Ephrm. Langille, Jas. Simpson, Alex McCurdy, John Nelson, John Hewitt, Robert Purves, Robt. Byers, Q. M. Jas. Hepburn.

Although annual drill was compulsory by law, it was not always performed. Many years the Assembly deemed it unnecessary and it was dispensed with. During the “fifties” the militia throughout Nova Scotia was lifeless, and it was not until the Fenian troubles of the “sixties” that it was revived. After the death of the Hon. Alexander Campbell, the 3rd Battalion Colchester Regiment was without a Colonel. Finally, in 1863, Alex. Conkey was appointed.

The period 1842-63 we can pass over as far as the militia is concerned as unimportant. But the “sixties” brought complications with the United States over the Civil War, which was followed by the Fenian Raids. The Government of Nova Scotia hastened to prepare the Province as best it could for the threatening dangers. The militia was re-organized and new officers appointed. In 1864, the militia n this County was increased to six battalions, the sixth being made up ot men from the present electoral districts of Tatamagouche East and West, New Annan, Waugh’s River, and Brule. The officers of this battalion in 1864 were as follows- Lt. Col. John Millar: Maiors I). A. Campbell and It. A. Logan; Captains Arch. Campbell, Benj. Blair, Edw. Kent, Abram H. Patterson, Henderson Cass, Wm. Logan; 1st Lieuts. W. A. McDonald, Geo. Waugh, John Urquhart, Wm. Patterson and Marmaduke Fraser; 2nd Lieuts. Washington Irving; Surgeon E. D. Roach. The following became officers in the next year: Captains Alex. Williamson and David Nelson; 1st Lieuts. Robert Purves, E. L. Cutten, Wellwood Currie, Wm. Irvine, Isaac Blair and James Bryden; '2nd Lieuts. John Wilson, Isaac Reid Wm. McCully, Jas. Nelson and Jas. Kennedy; Adjutant B. Blair; Quartermaster Arch. Patterson. In 1869, the last year the miiitia had drill, the following new officers appear: Capt. W. A. Patterson; 1st Lieut. A. H. Patterson; 2nd Lieuts. Rod. Barclay, Jos. Sled, J. T. B. Henderson, Jas. T. Johnson, J. D. McIntosh, Hugh Harris, Geo. Nelson, and Jas. Porteous.

During these years annual drill of five days was performed. On the first four, each company was drilled by itself The last day was taken up with battalion drill.6 On that day, which was not without high excitement, all the companies met in the village.

By the terms of Confederation in 1867, the control of the militia passed to the Federal Government. As Fenian Raids were over the Government decided to do away with compulsory drill, giving, however, to all units the right to drill if they desired. For two years the men of Tatamagouche continued to drill, and then they voluntarily disbanded.

It may be noted that in the spring of 1866, when the Fenian scare was at its height, the militia men of this community, in accordance with the Proclamation issued by the then Lieut. Governor, were under orders to prepare themselves to meet any emergency Men were drafted from the various companies, and did a special drill. As all the members were, technically speaking at least, on active service, they became eligible for the Fenian Raid bounty granted a few years ago by the Dominion Government.

At the same time as the revival of the militia, there was inaugurated throughout the Province a volunteer movement. By this scheme a number of men sufficient to form a company, volunteered to perform a certain number of days’ drill annually for three years. In 1860-61, several units were organized throughout the Province, but it was not till ’62 that the “Stirling Rifles” was organized at Tatamagouche. The officers were as follows: Captain David Campbell; 1st Lieut. Wm. Blackwood; 2nd Lieuts. W. A. McDonald and Arch. Campbell; Surgeon E. D. Roach. At the expiration of their time of service in 1866, a grand ball was given in the Town Hall by the officers and men. It was the social event of the times and was attended by all the flower and beauty of the community. The officers, for the last time, appeared in their uniforms.

In this democratic country there is, as a rule, a general aversion to anything in the nature of compulsion, particularly in regard to military service or drill. That was, in all probability one of the reasons why the Government determined to make the militia throughout Canada purely voluntary. But still, we cannot but have regret that the old Nova Scotia Militia, which had reached so high a degree of proficiency was not continued throughout the Province. Aside from the fact that it was compulsory there were no odious features connected with it. The men enjoyed the drill, where for a fewr days they could turn aside from the usual day’s routine and mingle with and become better acquainted with their fellow men. Its physical effects were good; men stood straighter and walked with better carriage. From a military standpoint it, too, accomplished its purposes. By it each man in the community became acquainted with the rudiments of military drill. He learned, to handle a rifle and to shoot straight. If, at the outbreak of the present war, there had been organized throughout Nova Scotia a militia as there was in the “sixties,” it would have assisted greatly in the raising of volunteers and in the training of the recruits. A good start Mould have been made long before the outbreak of hostilities.

No sketch, however short, of the shipbuilding days at Tatamagouche, is complete without a reference to the loss of the “Isabella”, a small vessel of 50 tons, built in the fall of 1868 by John Millar, of the Mountain. It was early December before the vessel was completed and loaded with a cargo of lumber for South America. There are many yet alive who can well recollect her as on that December day she gaily sailed out of the harbour, and was soon lost to view on what was to prove her first and only voyage. From the day she-sailed through the Gut of Canso, nothing has ever been heard of either her or her crew. Heavy storms visited the country shortly after she set sail, and it was generally believed that she was lost off the Cape Breton coast. There were rumours which were probably not without foundation, that wreckage of a vessel answering to her description had been found along that coast. On board the vessel, besides John Millar, the owner, were Tom Millar, his son; John McIntosh, of Waugh’s River; and Alex. Drysdale, of the Mountain: John Toker, Jr., captain; Hector McLean, who was mate; and Ephraim Matatall.

Another wreck was that of a brigantine* which was built by Robert Logan in or about 1863. On her first voyage she was loaded with merchandise for Newfoundland, and set sail from Tatamagouche about the last of October. On the night subsequent to sailing, the mate, who was unfamiliar with the Northumberland coast, was directing the course of the vessel and, in some way, either missed or mistook Pictou Island light. About -4 a. m. he was surprised that he was unable to see Cape George light and becoming alarmed he had all the crew called on deck. They immediately “hove-to” and while each was endeavouring to catch a glimpse of a light, they were surprised to see a high and rocky shore loom up almost alongside the ship. They had oversailed their course and were almost ashore at Broad Cove, Inverness. Frantic efforts were made to put the vessel seaward, but the heavy wind and sea made their endeavours of no avail. As soon as it was found that nothing could prevent the ship from striking, the crew lashed themselves to the yards and, alter the vessel had struck, they remained there till the storm fn a great measure had abated. In an endeavour to reaeh shore in a boat which was upturned the mate was drowned. He was a remarkably strong man, and it is said that he clung for twenty minutes to a rope before he was finally carried away by the high-running sea. Samuel Weatherbie of the village was a seaman on board at the t’me. James Tattrie, Lake Road, and the late Simon Midaru were with the ship as was also the owner, Robert Logan.

But the wreck which aroused the greatest interest at Tatamagouche, and indeed no small amount of interest throughout all shipping circles, was the loss on the Goodwin Sands of the “Indian Chief” in the winter of 1880. She was not a Tatamagouche vessel, but was built and owned at Yarmouth. Marmaduke Fraser, son of William Fraser, was captain of this vessel at the time she was lost, and with him as second mate was his brother, Howard Primrose, and it was the loss of these two young men which has made the story of the wreck of the “Indian Chief” a familiar one in every Tatamagouche home.

The “Indian Chief” a ship of 1238 tons register, sailed from London on a Sunday afternoon bound with a general cargo for Yokohama. For the first few days thick weather was encountered but all went well. Early on Wednesday morning, there arose a sudden squall accompanied with rain, and in the confusion which followed, the ship struck the sands. She was made of soft wood and it was feared that she would at once go to pieces. Fires were kindled and rockets were sent up. “But all the while the wind was gradually sweeping up into a gale and oh! the cold, good Lord, the bitter cold of that wind!” At daybreak a lifeboat was sighted, but it was soon forced to give up the attempt to reach the stranded vessel. Through the day the sh.p slowly went to pieces and believing that it was only a matter of time till she would break up, the Captain ordered three boats to be launched. They were immediately engulfed and the sailors drowned. Finally all climbed to the top of the masts as a last place of refuge. There they stayed till daybreak, when a life boat rescued those who were still alive. Captain Fraser had died from exposure and cold several hours before the rescue but Howard, his brother, was. still living. He was taken on board the lifeboat where he died half an hour later. He was the hero of the wreck. During the long hours on the masts he sheltered his brother as best he could and continually strove to keep up the courage and hope of all those who were aboard. The first mate, who was rescued speaking of him said: “Near him (the captain) was his brother, a stout-built, handsome young fellow, twenty-two years old, as fine a spe< 'men of the English sailor as ever I was shipmate with. He was calling about him cheerfully, bidding us not be down-hearted and telling us to look sharply around us for the lifeboats. He helped several of the benumbed men to lash themselves saying encouraging things to them as he made them fast.’’ Marmaduke and Howard Fraser surely were two men who in the sternest test the sea could give, lived up to the best traditions of the British sailor.

In December, 1867, an American schooner of 100 tons was burned in the channel of the river near Steele’s island. She had been loaded with copper ore at Patterson’s wharf, and grounded in the channel near the island, and before she could be floated the river was frozen across. One night, not long afterwards, she was burned to the water’s edge. The first intimation which the people of the village had of the fire was when they awoke the next morning and saw on the island several tents which the crew, using the sails, had made to protect themselves from the cold of the night. No satisfactory explanation of the origin of the fire was ever given, and it was generally believed that the crew, in order to escape spending the winter in the vessel, had deliberately set her on fire. For some years after, some of her timbers could still be seen at low tide. These, however, were removed at the time of the dredging operations. Only a few years ago some of the copper, which had been half-smelted by the fire, was recovered from the bottom of the channel by the Stirling Mining Company which had taken over the interests of the old company. Two bells, which were afterwards purchased by the school sections of Barrachois and Tatamagouche were saved from the wreck, The Tatamagouche one continued to be used till the time of the building of the new school house.

By 1870. shipbuilding had lost its place as the leading industry of the community, and at the end of another ten years it could no longer be called an industry at all. Some of the last ships built by D. and Arch. Campbell were the largest to be launched at Tatamagouche. The “Jumna”, “Edith Carmichael”, and “Minnie Carmichael” were vessels of some 800 to 1000 tons. They were built in Campbells’ yards and were so large that their bowsprits extended over the highway that runs near the yards. The building of these ships, practically brought to an end the shipbuilding industry at Tatamagouche. Subsequently small coasting vessels were built. In 1900 and 1904, Capt. Alex. Weatherbie built the “McClure” and the “Unity”, three masted schooners of about 200 tons each.

The decline of this industry at Tatamagouche was due, of course, to the loss of the market for wooden sailing vessels, their place in the work of ocean transportation being gradually taken by iron and steam craft. The rather premature close of this ndustry at Tatamagouche may have been accelerated by various local conditions, but its final close was inevitable. At River John, for instance, they continued to build ships for another ten years, though a good portion of the ship timber was obtained in the vicinity of this place. Still, it was only ten years till shipbuilding at River John met the same fate.

We may, however, before concluding this chapter, add a few other general observations upon the shipbuilding industry as carried on at Tatamagouche.

The vessels constructed varied in size from the small “Jare Ann” of 7 tons to the “Jumna” of 1000 tons. They were used, according to their size and build, for coasting, intercolonial and foreign trade. A number were built for fishing purposes, the “Newfoundlanders”, for instance. The majority were built for sale in the open market but many, notably the larger ones, were built under contract for persons in the Old Country or elsewhere. The foremen, as a rule, did the designing, though when building under contract, the specifications and drafts were generally sent out by the buyers. The five classes of vessels so common m those days-—schooner, brigantine, brig, barque, and full-rigged-ship—-were all built at Tatamagouche. The ship market during those years was so fluctuating and uncertain that the greatest variance is to be found in the sums realised for like ships at different periods. There was no gradual and well ordered fall and rise in the prices, but, as we have seen, with scarcely any apparent reason or warning, the bottom fell out of the ship market and vessels frequently sold for amounts that did not cover their expenses across the Atlantic. More than one Nova Scotian shipbuilder has been ruined because of expenses which have accumulated around a vessel lying unsold in Liverpool, or other foreign ports. It may, however, be interesting to note the actual values which were placed upon a few of the many vessels constructed here. In 1834, Campbell built a schooner “Thomas Mahoney” of 94 tons. She was contracted for persons n England and was to be built for the most part of black birch and to be fully rigged. For this ship Campbell received Ł475 or roughly, $2.U00. The Customs returns for 1863 placed the value of the “Staffa”, a barque of 309 tons at 812,300; of the “Gertrude” brigantine of 133 tons, at 85,300; and of the “Glen Tilt”, barque of 323 tons, at $13,000. In 1865, the “Lillie M.’, a barque of 349 tons, was valued at 814,960. These, being Customs returns, do not exactly represent what the owners received, but they fairly well indicate the value of ships built at that time. Considering the large number of ships which were built here, it, is rather surprising how few shares in them were ever retained by Tatamagouche people. There were, of course, exceptions, but, as a rule, the builders seemed desirous of selling their vessels outright; and it was rarely that they retained any substantial interest. Another peculiar fact is that, while Tatamagouche was a leading shipbuilding port, it cannot be said to have been the home of many sailors. Some of her sons, it is true, have followed the sea, but, considering the large number of ships were were constructed and for the first time manned here, the number is surprisingly few. Indeed, it seems that when a vessel was launched and sold that as far as the people of Tatamagouche were concerned was the end of her.

Although this industry conferred few, if indeed any, permanent benefits upon this place and community, still for fifty years it made Tatamagouche a busy hive of industry. From sunrise to dusk the shores from Campbell’s to Lockerbie’s heard the music of the singing saws and the continual din of hammer, axe and adze. Id the evenings the small village presented a busy scene, men in groups gathered in the stores, or along the streets, mingling with sailors from the ships, or farmers from the surrounding districts. Rum, which was sold as a staple article by all the local merchants, was plentiful as water and tended in a great degree to make the evenings merrier and the nights more hideous.

But those days are gone, never, save in story, to return. And after all, who would call them back? Theirs was a false and transient prosperity, which before it was born was doomed by science to an early death. Shipbuilding, with all its charms and alluring possibilities, never can, as an industry, have the same solid and dependable value to a community as has agriculture. For, while the one produces only that commerce may be expedited, the other brings forth from the earth those products which are indispensable to life itself. If all else should fail, agriculture must and will go on.

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