“From the cedar swamp
the gaunt wolves howl,
From the oak loud whoops the felon owl;
The snow storm sweeps in thunder past,
The forest creaks beneath the blast.”
“THE old Indian names
along the Quinte shores were nearly trampled underfoot in the shameless
tuft-hunting of our early Governors,” quotes Mr. Gardiner from
Picturesque Canada. One instance will suffice. At Belleville, the
ancient River Sagonaska was renamed to flatter the Earl of Moira, and
even his baronies were detailed in the county of "Hastings” and the
townships of "Rawdon” and "Hungerford.” In this case (though, by no
means always), the names recall individuals of some note. In his younger
days, as Lord Rawdon, this particular aristocrat served throughout the
revolutionary war from Bunker’s Hill onward; as the Earl of Moira, he
commanded a British force sent to Flanders, and, as Marquis of Hastings,
was Governor of Bengal, acquitting himself so much to the satisfaction
of the East India Company that they presented him on his retirement with
£60,000. Green, by the way, gives him “credit for paving the way for the
abolition of suttee”—that terrible custom which bound the widows of
India to die in the flames consuming the bodies of their husbands.
Other names suggestive
of interesting personalities are written on the map of this county—including
those of the scientists Faraday and Herschel, and the Arctic explorer
McClure, who in 1850 took a British vessel through the long-sought
North-west Passage. But, with the exception of the last, who is said to
have "served in the lake fleet during the rebellion of 1837,” their
owners had no actual connection with the Province.
The settlement of
Hastings County, which fronts for thirty miles on the Bay of Quinte, was
begun by the Loyalists. The most easterly of Hastings’ front townships
bears the Indian name of Chief Brant, “Tyendinaga,” and was granted at
the close of the war to the Indian Loyalists of the Mohawk tribe.
Portions of the township were afterwards surrendered, but there is still
an Indian reserve of about 17,000 acres bordering on the bay. The
greater part of this is good land, and part of it is well cultivated.
Some of the farms are leased to white people, but there are Mohawk
farmers who have good buildings and clean, productive fields. Nine or
ten years ago an agricultural society was established, and a number of
very successful “fairs” have been held in the “Council House” of the
tribe. There are several schools and two fine churches on the Indian
The adjoining township
of Thurlow (then called “Nuitte Town”) was surveyed in 1787, and in the
spring of 1789 fifty Loyalists (many of them forced by persecution to
leave their old homes in the United States) came to that township and
its westerly neighbour, Sidney. They suffered many hardships, for they
arrived after the Government had ceased to allow rations to the
Loyalists. In the following year John Taylor settled near the mouth of
the Moira (then called “Singleton’s Creek,” after an early settler who
died very soon), and the spot where he built his log cabin is now one of
the busiest parts of the city of Belleville. The energetic Captain John
W. Meyers came next after Taylor, and from him the future county seat
was called “ Meyers’ Creek" until 1816, when, according to Dr. Scadding,
Governor Gore jocosely suggested the abbreviation of his wife’s name,
Arabella, as a good name for the village. No doubt nine persons out of
ten imagine that it is merely a tribute to the beauty of the town or its
The Historical Atlas
claims for Meyers that, after constructing a dam and erecting a mill, he
built, in 1794, “the first brick house that Canada had ever seen.” This
remarkable dwelling was set on a hill and stood for eighty years. Ten
years later the first bridge —a covered one—was thrown across the
narrowest part of the river. Belleville’s first church was built by the
Methodists in 1810. Pulpit and seats were made of rough boards (in the
latter case they were mounted on small blocks of wood), but twenty years
went by before it w as superseded by a more commodious building.
Meantime, in 1820, the Anglicans of Belleville had erected their first
church in that district, west of Adolphustown.
At the time of its
re-christening, the site of the village comprised two hundred acres. Now
the city' of Belleville covers about nine times that area, and has a
population of over 10,000 souls. Its “first flag-stone sidewalk” was
laid down in 1836. Three years later the Court of Quarter Sessions was
held for the first time in the Court House, which had been recently'
erected, costing, with the jail, nearly $124,000. Belleville was
incorporated as a town in 1850, a year memorable also for the
commencement of the making of grave! roads. At first tolls were charged
on them, but in 1859 they became toll-free.
newspaper, published in 1831, had a brief existence, like many of its
immediate successors. Amongst these was the Plain Speaker, which in 1836
essayed to give support to Mackenzie’s party. The editor, Hart, was put
into the penitentiary for an attempted raid on a bank at Cobourg. A
little later the paper appeared one morning with the British arms upon
it, upside down, and, regarding this as a deliberate insult to the
Government, a company of loyal volunteers marched to the office, upset
the type-fonts and “trailed” the luckless manager through the snow and
slush. In 1841, Mr. and Mrs. Moodie, who bad come to live in Belleville
two years earlier, when the former was appointed Sheriff of Hastings
County, became joint-editors of another unfortunate literary venture,
The Victoria Magazine. The lines at the head of this chapter are by Mrs.
Moodie, who was one of the notable Strickland family.
The first annual
township meeting of Sidney was held in 1790, and in an early record of
resolutions dealing with the height of fences and the running of animals
on the roads, it is quaintly stated that “Hogs is to be free commons
till they done damage”! At the extreme west of Sidney is the flourishing
town of Trenton, which now has about 4000 inhabitants. Its first
Loyalist settlers arrived in 1790. A few years later, Dr. Strachan, the
future Bishop of Toronto, bought land on the broken front of Sidney.
This he laid out in town lots, giving to the subdivision his wife’s
maiden name of "Anuwood.” It has long ago been absorbed in Trenton,
formerly a great lumbering centre, to which thousands of feet of lumber
were ratted down every' year. One of the old type of covered bridges
spanned the river at this place.
There was another
bridge higher up the stream at Frankford, built some time after the spot
was visited by that versatile Governor, Sir Francis Bond Head, for it
was he who named the ford after himself. Another Hastings County name to
which a suggestive little anecdote is attached is that of “Thrasher’s
Corners.” It does not now appear, however, in the list of post-offices,
so perhaps the name has been changed by the generation which knew not
“old Mr. Thrasher,” and can no longer glory in his exploit of engaging
single-handed, armed only with a club, in combat with two full-grown
bears. With this primitive weapon he slew them both, so well earned the
right to give his name to the “Corners” where the deed was done.
Such sturdy, valiant
men were common amongst the pioneers. But very early the authorities
decided that discipline and training are needful to make the best of
courage, so, in 1799, the Hastings militia was organised, and every
other Saturday, in pioneer days, the men were put through their drill.
In 1812 Hastings men helped for weeks to garrison Kingston, and in 1838
they were hurried to Gananoque to look after filibusters threatening the
border. For this they claimed a promised payment of three shillings per
day, but the Adjutant-General " refused to certify their pay and
allowances,” and, despite a great outcry, the money was not forthcoming.
Within more recent
years it has been discovered that the county is rich in minerals,
ranging from granite, limestone, marble, and beautiful blue bodalite,
used for building purposes, to arsenic, corundum, talc, zinc, and iron
pyrites, which are obtained in different townships. In the town of
Deseronto the smelting of iron has been carried on since 1898. Hastings
County, moreover, has had its attack of gold fever. Nearly half a
century ago traces of the precious metal were discovered in Madoc and
later in Marmora and other townships, and for a season people went wild
with excitement. Thousands of dollars were wasted in speculation and in
putting expensive machinery into mines which gave insufficient returns.
The story is largely one of lawsuits and disappointments, but Hastings
County, dowered with so much other wealth, can well afford to let go its
dreams of being an Eldorado.