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The Scot in British North America
Chapter III. The Legal Profession

The careers of more than one of our judges have already been sketched, either in local or politica1 connexion. Chief Justices Macaulay and Wilson, for example, will be found in earlier pages. It only remains to take in those who have not prominently figured in public life, and, so far as practicable, introduce men who specially deserve mention. The Hon. Thomas Galt, Puisne Judge in the Common Pleas Division, is the second son of the late John Galt, and brother of Sir Alexander Galt, of whom mention has already been made. He was born in London, where his father then lived, in August, 1815, and partly educated in England, partly in Scotland. For some time he attended an academy at Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, and was subsequently under the tuition of Dr. Valpy, known a generation ago as a popular teacher and an editor of the classics. In 1828, the family removed to Canada, and young Galt was placed under the charge of Mr. Braithwaite, at Chambly, amongst his fellow-pupils being Bishop Fuller, of Niagara, and Mr. Thos. C. Street. Two years after; he returned to the old country and spent three years there, and then returned to settle in Toronto, only a few weeks before it acquired that name.

Mr. John Galt’s connection with the Canada Company afforded an opening for his son, and in its office he remained for about six years. Having resolved to enter the legal profession, Thomas Galt studied under Mr. (afterwards Chief Justice) Draper, and was chief clerk for him, when Attorney-General of Upper Canada, as Chief Justice Harrison subsequently served under Sir John Macdonald. The experience thus gained, notably in criminal practice, was of essential service. In 1845, Mr. Galt was called to the bar, and at once entered upon the practice of his profession. There was much in his favour, besides the thorough training he had undergone. Naturally of a benign disposition, he also possessed a fine presence, and an attractive address. In the practice of criminal law he was amongst the foremost, and his established integrity of character secured for him the legal business of various railway and other corporations—trusts he fulfilled with scrupulous fidelity. As Crown prosecutor, Mr. Galt has been engaged in many causes celèbres in the Western Province, and conducted them with that skill and firmness, which characterize British, as distinguished from French or American conduct of criminal cases. Judge Galt, who married soon after his call to the bar, has a large family all living of five sons and four daughters. In 1858, he was appointed Queen’s Counsel, and in 1869, on the death of Judge John Wilson—a Scot of whom unhappily we have no record—was elevated to the Bench as a Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. But for a confirmed stoop in the shoulders, early acquired from study, Mr. Justice Galt is still hale and active, although he rapidly approaches the seventieth year of his age.

The Hon. William Proudfoot, Vice-Chancellor, or as he is now called, Justice of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice in Ontario, was born near Errol, in Perthshire, early in November, 1823. Mention has already been made of his father, the Rev. Wm. Proudfoot. The Vice-Chancellor was scarcely nine years of age when his father brought him to Canada. The old Secession pastor was a staunch Liberal, and naturally came under suspicion, when everybody was suspected, during the troubles of 1837. He, however, boldly met the aspersions of his political enemies, and secured himself from molestation. The sons received their education entirely under the parental roof, and William, the third in order of birth, never entered a public institution of learning. Having resolved to adopt the law as his profession, Mr. Proudfoot entered the office of Messrs. Blake (afterwards Chancellor of Upper Canada) and Morrison (now Justice of the Court of Appeal), and received a call to the bar in 1849. For two years he practised in partnership with the late Mr. Jones, and in 1851, was appointed the first Chancery Master and Deputy Registrar at Hamilton. This appointment was rendered necessary by the thorough re-organization of the Equity Court, accomplished by the Hon. W. H. Blake. After retaining this position for three years, Mr. Proudfoot preferring to return to the active work of his profession, entered into partnership with Messrs. Freeman and Craigie. The firm stood at the head of the Hamilton bar, and Mr. Proudfoot had the charge of the equity practice. In 1862, he left the firm and practised alone until 1874, when he succeeded Vice-Chancellor Strong (now of the Supreme Court) upon the bench. He had previously been gifted with the silk as Queen’s Counsel. Prior to his elevation to the bench he was a Reformer in politics, and still remains true to hereditary Presbyterianism as a member of Knox Church, Toronto. As a lawyer and a judge, Vice-Chancellor Proudfoot is deeply read—indeed, he has not yet ceased to be a student of the great authorities in equity. Being thoroughly conversant with the Latin and French languages, the learned Judge is well-grounded in the Roman and civil law, and his judgments, as might be expected, are models of lucid expression and technical accuracy. He is what is still better, thoroughly judicial in the texture of his mind, and has proved a distinguished ornament to the Ontario Bench. Of Justices Morrison and Cameron, sketches have already been given.

The Hon. Kenneth Mackenzie Q.C., County Court Judge of York, and of the Maritime Court, is the son of a Scottish farmer, and was born, in Ross-shire, early in the century. Educated in Scotland, he came to this country about 1831, and settled first at Montreal, where he served in a store. He subsequently set up in business for himself at Cobourg, but soon after exchanged the counter for the desk. Mr. Mackenzie entered the office of Mr. (afterwards Judge) Boswell, at Cobourg, and completed his term with Messrs. Sherwood & Crawford, at Toronto. He was called to the bar in 1843, became a Q. C. in 1853, and a Bencher of the Law Society, a 1871. His first field for practice was at Kingston, and in 1853, he became County Court Judge for Frontenac and its allied counties. In 1865, he resigned to resume his practice at Toronto. At his retirement, Judge Mackenzie was presented with a flattering address from the members of the bar, and another equally complimentary from the County Council. In 1866, the United States Government retained Mr. Mackenzis to defend the Fenian prisoners, and he succeeded in procuring the acquittal of nearly one half of them. Being a Reformer in politics, he was employed by the Provincial Government as Crown Prosecutor, especia1ly at Toronto, and, in that capacity had charge of many important cases. In October, 1876, he received the appointment of County Court Judge of York, and in the following year was gazetted as Judge of the Ontario Maritime Court. In addition to these offices, Judge Mackenzie presides at Criminal Sessions, at the Surrogate Court, the Court of Assessment Appeals, and, with the assistance of Judge Boyd, also conducts ten Division Courts. He is liable also to be called upon to conduct any civil investigations ordered by the Municipal Council, and has quite recently investigated the matter of the burnt paving contract. At Judge Mackenzie’s advanced age these constant drafts upon his time and physical resources must be exceedingly trying. Neverthless he has not hitherto shown any lack of energy or ability in the discharge of his onerous labours.

Robert Dennistoun, Q. C., County Court Judge of Peterborough, Ont., was born at Camis Eskan, Dumbartonshire, early in 1815. His father was a country gentleman and Deputy-Lieutenant of the County. The Judge is sixteenth in descent from Sir Hugh Dennistoun, who flourished in the latter part of the thirteenth century. Having been educated in Scotland, Mr. Dennistoun came to Canada in 1834, and settled in the present County of Victoria. For ten years he engaged in farming, and then commenced the study of law. In 1849, he received his call to the bar, and after nearly twenty years’ practice at Peterborough, was made Queen’s Counsel. In 1868, he was elevated to the Bench. Judge Dennistoun is distinguished for the singular uprightness and integrity of his character, and the impartiality of his judgments. He has long been an elder of the Presbyterian Church, and is deeply respected for his Christian life and example. He has five surviving children, two sons in his own profession, and a daughter survives her husband, the lamented Professor Mackerras, of Queen’s College.

Archibald Macdonald, late County Court Judge of Wellington, Ont., was the eldest son of Capt. Archibald, of the 35th Foot, and grandson of Macdonald of Garth. He was born near Cobourg, in 1823, and received his education at the Grammar School and at Victoria College. Mr. Macdonald studied law under Judge Boswell, and was called to the bar in 1844. He early practised at Cobourg, and for some time was Deputy Master in Chancery there. In September, 1854, he was made County Judge, and held that position until recently. He has also been Chairman of the Board of Education at Guelph, and a License Commissioner for South Wellington.

Rolland Macdonald, Q. C., County Court Judge of Welland, belongs to the old Highland stock. His father resided near Cornwall, Ont., but at the time of his son’s birth was in the North-West. Mr. Macdonald was born in March, 1810, at Fort William, and his education was conducted chiefly at Montreal. He was called to the bar fifty years ago, in Easter term, 1832, became a Bencher of the Law Society in 1851, and Queen’s Counsel in 1856. He practised his profession at St. Catharines. Mr. Macdonald had to do with some interesting cases. In a libel case against William Lyon Mackenzie—the only one, it is said, he ever lost, the defendant spoke for six hours. In 1837, he defended Dr. Morrison when on trial for treason; and many years after was leading counsel, with the late Chief Justice Harrison, in prosecuting the man alleged to be Townsend, the murderer. In 1840, Mr. Macdonald contested Cornwall unsuccessfully, but was returned in 1844, when he resigned to make room for the Hon. J. H. Cameron, Solicitor-General. For thirteen years—he had previously declined the Judgeship—he occupied the position of Clerk of the Peace and County Crown Attorney for Lincoln, and in 1873, was appointed to the position he now enjoys. Judge Macdonald has seen some active service as a volunteer. In 1837, he was opposed to the rebels as a dragoon at Gallows Hill, and became a captain of St. Catharines cavalry, on duty near the frontier. As a supernumerary officer of the 93rd Highlanders, he took part in the battle of the Windmill, at Prescott, and was subsequently Lieut.-Colonel of the 5th Lincoln Battalion.

Herbert Stone Macdonald, County Court Judge of Leeds and Grenville, is comparatively a young man, having been born at Gananoque in 1842. His father, the Hon. John Macdonald, had been a member of the Legislature of the Province, whilst his grandfather hailed from Perthshire. Mr. Herbert Macdonald received his education at Queen’s College, graduating there in 1859, as B. A., and as M. A., in 1861. His student term at law was passed at Brockville and Toronto, and he received his call to the bar in 1863. He practised at Brockville for ten years, and was then raised to the Bench as Junior Judge in 1873, and Senior in 1878. Judge Macdonald is regarded as one of the ablest of our County Court judiciary, and may not improbably be heard of in a higher position. Mr. Macdonald was elected for South Leeds by acclamation, in the Conservative interest, at the general election of 1871; but resigned in 1873 to take his seat on the bench.

David S. Macqueen, County Court Judge of Oxford, Ont., is a son of Captain David of that ilk, who came from the Island of Skye, and was an officer of the Canadian Fencibles. His mother was a daughter of the Hon. Thos. Fraser, and he himself saw the light at Quebec, in September, 1811. Having been educated by the Rev. Dr. Urquhart, at Cornwall, Mr. Macqueen studied law at Brockville, and afterwards, under the Hon. Henry Sherwood. During his student term, the rebellion of 1837 broke out, and he was sent with a detachment, in charge of arms, for the use of the Glengarries. Having accomplished this somewhat difficult duty, he was at once appointed a Lieutenant of Cavalry and sent to Dickenson’s Landing to bring up the headquarters of the 32nd and 83rd Regiments. In January, 1838, he was appointed by Sir John Colborne, Captain of the Queen’s Own Borderers, in a company he had assisted in raising. When the attempt was made upon Prescott, Mr. Macqueen volunteered as a marine to direct the operations of H. M. S. Enterprise, then engaged in watching the piratical craft, which at last gave way under fire at "The Wind-mill." When the engagement took place, Mr. Macqueen was a volunteer in the advance guard of the attacking force, under Col. R. D. Fraser, and "received the first fire of the enemy from behind the stone-walls surrounding the butternut orchard." [Canadian Legal Dictionary, 1878, p. 235.] In 1839, Mr. Macqueen was called to the bar, and six years after received two appointments, one as Bankruptcy Commissioner, and the other as Judge of the Brock District. On the establishment of the county system, Judge Macqueen was made Judge of Oxford, a position he still occupies.

Henry Macpherson, County, Surrogate, and Admiralty Judge of Grey, comes of a renowned Highland clan. His great-grandfather, Evan of Cluny, chief of the clan, fought under Prince Charlie in 1745. His grandfather, Donald, commanded Fort Frontenac, at Kingston, during the war of 1812, and was subsequently removed to Quebec, where he remained on duty until the close of the war. Judge Macpherson’s father was a minister, his mother a daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Maclean, for sixteen years Speaker of the Assembly. He himself was born at Picton, Prince Edward County, in August, 1832. Educated at the Kingston Grammar School and Queen’s College, he graduated in 1851, and subsequently studied law under Mr. Thos. Kirkpatrick, Q.C. He was called to the bar in 1855, and shortly after opened an Office at Owen Sound, where he practised for ten years, with success, and was frequently employed as Crown prosecutor at the Assizes. In 1865 he became Judge of the County Court, and in 1879, received his other appointments. As a lawyer, Judge Macpherson was renowned for his erudition; in Court, for his able appeals to juries, and he has acquired the sincere respect of his fellow-practitioners. Judge Macpherson holds a high position in the Masonic craft, having held office in the Grand Lodge of Canada, and in the Grand Chapter. As a citizen, he has filled many important positions, having been a presiding or other officer of the Mechanics’ Institute, the Agricultural and Horticultural Societies, of the Fruit-Growers’ Association, as well as the Curling and Cricket Clubs of his place of residence. Judge Macpherson married a daughter of Mr. Allen L. Maclean, of Toronto, by whom he has one child.

Alexander Forsyth Scott, Judge of the County Court of Peel, has never left the homestead on which he was born, at Brampton, in July, 1828. His father John, a Scottish manufacturer, came to Canada about the year 1817, and, after spending a few years, where Galt now stands, removed to the Township of Chinguacousy, on the site of what is now Brampton. The son’s education was conducted on as liberal a scale as the circumstances of the Province, at that time, could afford; and he laid in a provident store of physical resources by labour on the family farm. Having resolved to be a lawyer, Mr. Scott studied under Mr. Clarke Gamble, Q.C., in Toronto, and received his certificate of fitness as attorney, in 1856—a call to the bar nearly two years later. In 1857, he commenced practice in his native village, and ten years later was appointed County Judge. He is held in deservedly high respect by the bar and the community. Judge Scott’s parts are solid, rather than demonstrative, and he is eminently fitted for the position he has long occupied. His knowledge of law is thorough, but it is the judicia1 temper he brings to bear upon every case in litigation, that inspires confidence in the minds of suitors. Every man who has the fortune or misfortune, to have a case before Judge Scott, knows that he can depend upon his integrity and judgment. We may add, that the Judge is a Master in Chancery also for the County of Peel, and that he has also been Warden, as well as Lieut.-Colonel of the Peel Battalion of volunteers. In a previous chapter we had occasion to note that Judge Scott had a younger brother in the late member for Peterborough, who unhappily was too early removed from our midst.

William Aird Ross, County Court Judge of Carleton, is a native Scot. He was the fourth son of Mr. Donald Ross, of Ardross, Rosskeen, Ross-shire, and was born at that place in 1815. The family appears to have settled early in Canada, for although Judge Ross’ early education was conducted in Scotland, he was finished, colloquially speaking, at Queen’s College, Kingston. His first intention was to enter the church, and with that view he studied divinity for some years, but subsequently resolved to adopt the legal profession. Called to the bar of Ontario in 1859, and to that of Quebec in 1868, Mr. Ross practised law at Ottawa, for a long time as partner of the Hon. R. W. Scott. He was elevated to the bench in September, 1874, and has satisfactorily fulfilled his judicial duties for the past eight years.

Jacob Ferrand Pringle, County Judge of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, like the Hon. J. Hillyard Cameron, was accidentally born in France, whilst his father and mother were with the army. The former was an officer in the 81st Regiment, and served during the Peninsular War. He was connected with the Earl of Airlie’s family, and more immediately belonged to the Pringles of Torsonce. The future Judge was only a year old when the family emigrated to Canada and settled in Cornwall. His father was for twenty years, Clerk of the Peace there—up to 1857. His son, like many other prominent men in the district, received his education from Dr. Urquhart, at the Cornwall Grammar School. Destined to the law, Judge Pringle was called to the bar early in 1839, and in 1857 became a Bencher. On the death of his father, he succeeded him as Clerk of the Peace, but in 1878, became Judge of the County Court, after serving two years as junior in the Lower Court, Judge Pringle has occupied many prominent positions at Cornwall. For some years school trustee, he is a past master mason, and a trustee and elder of the Presbyterian Church. His wife was the daughter of the Hon. Alexander Fraser, of Fraserfield, Glengarry, and has borne ten children, five sons and five daughters. Of this large family only three daughters are married; not one of the sons. The Judge belongs to a U. E. Loyalist family, and possesses an orderly book belonging to his grandfather, Captain Anderson, who fought for the Crown during the American revolution.

Daniel Home Lizars, County Judge of Perth, was born in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in February, 1822. In 1833 the family removed to Canada, and settled at Goderich, in the County of Huron. The father held the office of clerk of the Peace for some years, and died in the spring of 1876. Educated at the Goderich Grammar-school, Mr. Lizars studied law with Mr. Strachan, and was called to the bar early in 1853. For five years Mr. Lizars practised in partnership with his former principal at Goderich, and Stratford. In 1858 he was appointed county Attorney of Perth, and in 1864 county Judge. He is also master in chancery and deputy registrar. Judge Lizars is an Anglican in religion, but of his political proclivities nothing is on record. He has had the misfortune to lose three of six children borne to him, and all but one of the survivors are unmarried. An opportunity may be afforded in the next chapter for speaking of Dr. Lizars, a brother who occupied a prominent position as a surgeon for many years in Toronto.

James Shaw Sinclair, Q.C., Judge of the County Court of Wentworth, is the son of a Scot, who came from Caithness to reside in Lanark, Ontario. He was born at Ramsay in April, 1838, and received his education at Perth He studied for the law under his uncle, Mr. W. McNairn Shaw, M. P., and was called to the bar at Easter, 1863, entering into partnership with Alexander Shaw, who now resides at Walkerton. In 1871, Mr. Sinclair was elected a bencher of the Law Society; was re-elected in 1876, and was made a Q.C. Since then he has conducted many important prosecution for the Crown, chiefly in the Western Peninsula. On the other hand, Mr. Sinclair has been called upon to defend two important murder cases, in both of which he was successful. In April, 1876, Mr. Sinclair was elevated to his present position, which he occupies with eminent acceptance, both to suitors and the profession.

The Hon. Alexander Cross, Judge of the Queen’s Bench in Quebec, was born at Old Monklands, Lanarkshire, in 1821. He was only five years of age when his father, who had been a gentleman farmer, removed to Canada. His education was conducted in the Eastern Townships. Unhappily the father died only a year after the immigration, and the family were compelled to go to work on the Chateauguay River, the site of the celebrated battle ground being part of the homestead. Assisted by his elder brother young Cross received a liberal training, and entered the office of Mr. J. J. Day as student-at-law. When the rebellion broke out in 1837, young Cross enrolled his name amongst the loyal volunteers in Colonel Maitland’s battalion, and served until the collapse of the insurrection in 1838, when he retired as full sergeant. When Beauharnois was evacuated, he was the first to enter it. While still a law student Mr. Cross was appointed Clerk of the County, then much larger than at present. He was called to the bar in 1842 and practised in partnership successively with Mr. Duncan Fisher, Q.C., and Mr. (afterwards Judge) Smith. Under Lord Metcalfe, in 1844, Mr. Cross was made Queen’s Counsel. His legal career was eminently successful, and an appointment to the bench was only a question of time. Mr. Cross took no prominent interest in party politics, yet he felt keenly when Provincial property was in danger. When the Montreal rioters, in 1849, fired the Parliament buildings, he busied himself, with Sir L. H Lafontaine, in endeavouring to save the archives, and also to rescue the members who were, for the moment, in imminent danger. Judge Cross has invariably declined all efforts to draw him into public life. He has more than once declined office when tendered him, and resolutely adhered to his profession. He received his appointment as Judge of the Queen’s Bench in August, 1877. It can hardly be said that he is a partizan; perhaps if his leanings could be ascertained, they would be rather Reform than Conservative. In point of fact he is not a party man, but a sound judicial lawyer, and as such has reflected honour on the Quebec bench. Judge Cross has been not merely a judicial interpreter of the law, but a suggestive reformer, especially in the direction of abolishing the effete laws on the subject of usury—setting himself against a peculiarly Lower Canada feeling in that direction. The Judge has a large family of eight, chiefly sons, besides two who have gone before.

The Hon. Robert Mackay, Judge of the Superior Court of Quebec, was a son of Colonel Mackay, long an officer of the Indian Department; whilst his mother was the daughter of the Hon. Arthur Davidson, a Judge of the Queen’s, Bench. He was born at Montreal in 1816, and educated there. Unfortunately we have very meagre details of his career. Having studied for the law, he was called to the bar in 1837, and became a Queen’s Counsel thirty years after. Judge Mackay’s professional rewards came to him later in the day than is usual in this country. But he had already done substantial work. In 1857, when the statutes were to be consolidated, he was nominated as a member of the Commission, and worked upon the Lower Canada and general statutes. In 1868, he was elevated to the Bench, and shortly after made an assistant Judge of the Queen’s Bench. Judge Mackay’s career has been solely limited within the boundaries of his profession; but he is admitted to be a sound lawyer and an unexceptionable Judge.

The Hon. Thomas Kennedy Ramsay, M. A., Judge of the Queen’s Bench of Quebec, is a Scot by birth, having been born at Ayr in September, 1826. Mr. Ramsay received his education at St. Andrews, and came out to this country early in life. Having selected the law as his profession, he studied under Messrs. Meredith, Bethune & Dunkin, of whom two were raised to the bench. Mr. Ramsay was called to the bar in 1852, and made a Q. C. in 1867. Lennoxville College gave him his degree, and his legal abilities caused him to be appointed on the commission to codify the laws. Unlike some of the Quebec Judges, Mr. Ramsay attempted to enter political life, but without success. He attempted Huntingdon in 1867, for the Commons. Judge Ramsay has been a hard worker in legal literature, having founded the Lower Canada Jurist, and early in his career was editor of the Journal de Jurisprudence, of Montreal. Besides these labours, Mr. Ramsay has published in French, historical and other legal brochure, illustrative of Lower Canadian law. In 1870, he was appointed to the Superior Court, as assistant Judge, and in 1873, as Puisne Judge of the Queen’s Bench. Prior to his elevation, Mr. Ramsay took part in many causes celébres, especially the Lamirault extradition case, and the Fenian prosecutions at Sweetsburg in 1866.

The Hon. Frederick William Torrance, M.A., Judge of the Quebec Superior Court, is son of a Scotsman, who was a merchant at Montreal. Judge Torrance was born in that city in July, 1823. His preliminary education was received at Nicolet, but he early repaired to Edinburgh, where he took his degree of M.A., in 1844, with honours both in classics and in mathematics. He had previously attended courses of lectures at Paris, with the apparent design of practising medicine. He returned to Canada, however, and studied law under Messrs. Fisher & Smith—the latter of whom was subsequently Attorney-General for Lower Canada. Having been called to the bar in 1848, Mr. Torrance practised his profession in Montreal or its vicinity for twenty years, and was made Queen’s Counsel in 1867. Judge Torrance had also to do with the establishment of the Lower Canada Jurist, and was its manager during the first four years. In addition to that, Mr. Torrance was lecturer on Roman Law at McGill University. He is a most industrious and careful teacher, and enjoys the thorough respect of the profession. He has never entered the political arena, and has always worked either on the bench or at the bar, purely as a member of the profession. The degree of B. C. L. was conferred upon him in 1856, by McGill University, and since 1870, he has been one of its Governors. In 1865, he undertook the important duty of enquiring into the raid at St. Alban’s, which resulted in the payment to the Americans of the money plundered from the Vermont Bank. Mr. Torrance was appointed a Judge of the Superior Court in August, 1868.

The Hon. Charles Duff, although a native of New Brunswick, was born of Perthshire parents in July, 1817. His life has not been eventful. Educated at St. John Grammar school, he early applied himself to the legal profession, and was called to the bar in 1840. Twenty years thereafter, his merits as a practitioner were rewarded with the silk; but fifteen years elapsed before he became in October, 1875, a Puisne Judge of the Superior Court of New Brunswick. Mention has already been made of the Hon. James William Johnston, and we have now to speak of his son, who bears the same name. He was born in the City of Halifax, and is County Court Judge of the district. His birth took place in January, 1824, when his father was in the zenith of political controversy. The paternal grandfather was a Scot, and believed himself entitled to the Marquisate of Annandale. He had settled in Georgia and followed the fortunes of the U. E. Loyalists, when their cause, and that of their king, were lost. The family first settled at Kingston, and finally made its way to Nova Scotia whither so many Loyalists had preceded them. The present judge received his education at Acadia College, and studied law in his father’s office. Called to the bar in 1845, he practised at Halifax for nearly twenty years, being appointed by the Dominion Government to the judgeship in 1873. Judge Johnston, like many of his confreres has occupied a high position in the Masonic order.

George Campbell, of Truro, N. S., occupies the position of registrar of the Probate Courts, and also practises his profession. He was born in Colchester county in 1832, the grandson of a Scot who settled at Pictou. His father was the Hon. Alexander Campbell, for many years a member of the Legislative Council. Mr. Campbell was educated at the Wesleyan Academy at Sackville, and subsequently studied law under Adams G. Archibald, now Lieutenant Governor of the Province. When called to the bar in 1856,he entered into partnership with his former principal who until 1867, practiced with him. Since Confederation he has stood alone. In Nova Scotia he bears the reputation of being a most able and conscientious lawyer, widely known and respected throughout the Province. In 1863, he was made registrar of probate, after having held other public positions of honour and trust. Mr. Campbell is also a member of the Presbyterian Church; and until 1879, when he resigned the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the 78th Highlanders, had for many years been connected with the Provincial militia.

Another lawyer of Nova Scotia, who practises at Antigonish, belongs to the real Highland stock, his parents having settled in Nova Scotia from Arisaig, Inverness-shire. Angus Macgillivray was born in the County of Pictou, in January, 1822, his father was a farmer and removed when Angus was still young to Antigonish. There the latter was educated at the St. Francois Xavier College and thereafter applied himself to the study of the law under the Hon. Hugh Macdonald, now upon the bench. Admitted to the bar in 1847, Mr. Macgillivray enjoys a lucrative practice not only in the Provincial Courts but also in the Supreme Court of the Dominion. As a public man he has occupied a prominent position in the Assembly, and took a foremost position in the agitation for the abolition of the Legislative Council. Nevertheless he is a professed Conservative, and represents the views of a constituency of a similar complexion. Mr. Macgillivray holds some views that have found expression further west. He considers a second chamber in the Provinces unnecessary, and also regards the party system, however called for in the arena of Dominion politics, a hindrance rather than an advantage in the smaller sphere of Provincial legislation. On these points he expresses his opinions fully and emphatically. Mr. Macgillivray was President of the Highland Society and presented the Gaelic address to the Marquis of Lorne in 1878. As may be gathered from the place of his education, Mr. Macgillivray belongs to the Roman Catholic Church, possessing a kindly and generous nature which makes him popular far beyond the limits of denominational connections.

Our list may conclude for the present with a New Brunswick judge, reserved for the last. James Grey Stevens, at present judge for four counties in the Province, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1822. His father was a Writer to the Signet and solicitor at "Auld Reekie," whilst his mother, a daughter of Sir Colin Campbell, of Auchinleck, possessed singular literary ability. In the palmy days of Blackwood and the Edinburgh Review, the future Mrs. Stevens was a valued contributor, and, in addition, wrote some sparkling works, illustrating Scottish life. Her sister, it may be mentioned, was the wife of Sir John Richardson, the Arctic explorer.

Mr. Stevens was educated at Edinburgh University when Sir William Hamilton and Professor Wilson (Christopher North) were upon the staff. Having come to New Brunswick, he settled at St. Stephen, where he studied law under Mr. Alexander Campbell, now a resident of California, and subsequently with another Scot, Mr. Kerr. Mr. Stevens was admitted to practise in 1845, and called to the bar in 1847. His practice was large and varied, especially in equity suits touching matters of business.

Mr. Stevens had a short term of public life between 1861 and 1865, when he was defeated on account of his partiality for Confederation. However, when the tide turned in the direction already described, he was once more in the Assembly, and aided by his speeches and the measures he introduced, in promoting the material progress of New Brunswick. In June, 1867, Judge Stevens was appointed to his present position, which he fills with great dignity and learning. It may be well to state that the learned judge has compiled more than one work of great value to the legal profession.

In drawing this portion of the work to a close, it is necessary to acknowledge the obligations we owe to those who have kindly aided us. It has not been thought well to name here all the many friends who have tendered that aid. In concluding the final instalment, an effort will be made to express, in some measure, our grateful acknowledgments. In the portion devoted herein to the churches and the law, great difficulty has been experienced from want of information. To those, therefore, who have given assistance, in the form of manuscript, we owe all the more sincere gratitude. In the interval which elapses between the issue, of this, and the concluding, part of the work, perhaps its friends will aid us with advice, correction in matters of fact and assistance in a labour sufficiently arduous in itself and not performed under the most favouring circumstances.

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