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The Story of Manitoba
Chapter XLIX The Story of the Schools


The Hudson's Bay Company seems to have made some provision for educating the children of factors and servants employed in its northern forts, for in 1808 it sent out James Clouston, Peter Sinclair, and George Geddes to act as teachers at some of these forts, paying each a yearly salary of £30. Under the conditions which prevailed in the country, the instruction given at these posts was not likely to he continuous or systematic, and it is not probable that any teaching was attempted at the inland posts previous to the arrival of permanent settlers in the country. It should be added, however, that many of the company's factors who had taken Indian wives sent their children to Great Britain or Canada to be educated. The traders of the North-West Company were equally anxious to secure a fair education for their offspring, and so quite a number of the prairie people, in whose veins French or Scotch blood was mixed with that of the native races, had received a fair education.

Lord Selkirk was very anxious to provide schools for the children of the pioneers in the Red River Settlement. As early as 1813 Mr. K. McRae was appointed to look after their educational interests, and he was expected to organize a school for boys and another for girls during the following year. The earl's instructions were: "He (McRae) has the improved methods of Jos. Lancaster. Let him select some young man of cool temper as schoolmaster. The. children should learn to read and write their native tongue (Gaelic). I care not how little they learn of the language of the Yankees. In the girls' school, needlework and women's accomplishments should be taught with reading." That the earl's agents shared his interest in education is shown by the fact that one of them organized a school for the children on board the ship which brought out the fourth party of Red River colonists.

Several years went by before Lord Selkirk's plans for establishing schools in his colony were carried out. The future of the settlement was most uncertain. Scarcity of food compelled the settlers to migrate to Pembina when w inter approached, and the hostility of the Nor'-Westers and the Metis compelled them to migrate to +he foot of Lake Winnipeg or elsewhere on two occasions during the summer. It is not surprising that such adverse conditions postponed the organization of schools six years.

In his charge to the missionaries whom he sent to Red River in 1818, Bishop Plessis said, "They should apply themselves with special care to the Christian education of children, establishing schools for this purpose in all the villages which they have occasion to visit." Father Provencher was not slow to carry out these instructions, and as soon as bis mission building at St. Boniface was habitable, he opened a school there for the children of the neighborhood. This, the first Roman Catholic school in Manitoba, was opened about the first of September 1818; and there for some hours each day the big, kindly priest taught the children reading, writing, and the catechism. The little folks proved apt pupils, and two of the larger lads had commenced the study of Latin before the close of 1819.

As soon as the building at St. Boniface was ready for occupation, Bishop Provencher sent his colleague, Father Dumoulin, to the French settlement at Pembina to establish a school there. A gentleman from Quebec, named Guillaume Edge, was put in charge of it, and before the end of the year sixty pupils had been enrolled. We are told that a school for the children of the buffalo hunters was organized at a point some distance west of Pembina soon after,: and that a French Canadian named Legace was its teacher; but it is probable that the settlement was not permanent and that the school was closed when the hunting season was over. Mr. Edge remained in the Pembina school two years, and then Mr. Sauve took his place. He seems to have remained in charge until 1823, when Pembina was found to be in United States territory, and most of the settlers moved to St. Boniface or to points along the Assiniboine.

Father Provencher went to Quebec in 1820, leaving Father Destroismaisons in charge of his school, and when he came back two years later, he brought with him Mr. Jean Harper, soon ordained as a priest, who acted as principal of the school for about nine years. In 1823 Bishop Provencher reported with some pride that two boys in the school, a Metis named Chenier and a Canadian named Senecal, had mastered the Latin grammar. A few years later we find that one of the masters taught English, so it is probable that some English-speaking boys attended the school.

But Bishop Provencher's educational work was not confined to St. Boniface. One by one, new parishes were organized in different parts of the country, and many of them had schools, the priest being teacher as well as pastor. Nor was the bishop unmindful of the educational needs of the girls in his great diocese. His difficulty was to find teachers for them; but this was overcome in 1829, when he induced Miss Angelique Nolin and her sister to come down from Pembina and take charge of a girls' school in St. Boniface. In 1838, through the generous assistance of Sir George Simpson, he opened an industrial school in St. Boniface, two ladies having been secured to give the young women of the settlement instruction in weaving and other household arts. The school and its equipment were burned in the following year, but with the help of the Hudson's Bay Company, its work was soon resumed in another building. In 1844 Sisters Valade, Lagrave, and Lafrance, the first nuns to reach Manitoba, took charge of the school which the Misses Nolin had managed up to that time. Sixty girls were attending it then.

Fifty-three years after Bishop Provencher opened his first school in the ill-constructed building, which served for church and residence as well as school, the institution was incorporated as St. Boniface College; and it is now attended by about four hundred students, engaged in secondary and university studies® In the place of the one girls' school with two teachers, there are many convents scattered over the province ini which a very large number of girls are being educated.


MANITOBA MEDICAL COLLEGE

"When Rev. John West, the first missionary sent to Red River by the Hudson's Bay Company, reached his field, he set at work at once to organize a school among the Scotch settlers. Jn his Journal he says.^'Soon after my arrival I got a log bouse repaired about three miles below the fort (Fort Douglas), among the Scotch population, where the schoolmaster took up his abode and began teaching from twenty to twenty-five children.'' This school, which was opened about the first of November, 1820, was probably the first school for English-speaking children organized in the Red River Settlement. The teacher was a gentleman named Harbidge or Halbridge, who had reached the colony just before the school was opened. In 1821 quite a large tract of land was secured, and an attempt was made to erect school buildings upon it. They were not completed when autumn came, and during the winter the school was conducted in a building belonging to the North-West Company. Owing to its distance from Kildonan, the attendance of the Scotch boys fell off badly during the severe weather. In 1822 the new buildings were occupied; and Mrs. Halbridge, who came out to her husband that year, taught the girls of the settlement household science as. well as reading and writing. Many of the boys in attendance came from a distance, and it was necessary to build a residence for them. The lads were instructed in the rudiments of agriculture, and Mr. West speaks with pride of the wheat and potatoes grown on the school grounds. lie seems to have had a few head of cattle too, so that his school was an agricultural school in a small way.

Rev. Mr. West went home to England in 1823, and his successor, Rev. T. D. Jones, seems to have managed the school for the next two years. Then he went back to England for a visit, and Rev. W. Cochran came out to be, as he said, "minister, clerk, schoolmaster, peacemaker, and agricultural director." The school seems to have developed into the Red River Academy about 1833, and under the management of Rev. John Macallum it did good work for the youth of the colony for many years. That gentleman was in charge of it when Bishop Anderson arrived in 1849; but some years later the bishop found the expense of maintaining the school too great for the limited funds at liis disposal, and it was closed. Its lineal successor seems to have been a similar school in St. Paul's parish, which was conducted by Rev. S. Pritchard, a son of the Mr. John Pritcli-ard who was prominent in the early history of the colony. This school was in operation when Bishop Machray reached the country in 1865.

In the meantime educational facilities for the English-speaking girls of the small and remote colony had greatly improved. The wife of Rev. David Jones, who had joined her husband at Red River in 1829, was impressed with the need of a boarding school for the girls of the settlement and for the daughters of Hudson's Bay Company's factors living in other parts of the country. She soon opened such an institution and, assisted by a governess from England, taught in it until her death in 1836. Then the wife of Rev. John Macallum took charge of the school until her husband's death in 1849. Cupid seems to have interfered with the management of this school very often; for no sooner was an assistant teacher brought out from England than she was induced to become the wife of some lonely officer of th& Hudson's Bay Company. In 1851 a new building was erected for the school on the north side of the creek which flowed into the Red River just south of St. John's cathedral; and Mrs. Mills and her two daughters took charge of it. This school was closed ill 1858, but its place in the life of the community was taken by a school which the Misses Davis opened in St. Andrew's. Many ladies now living in Manitoba received their education in that institution.

As the clergy of the Church of England extended the field of their labors north along the Red River and west along the Assiniboine, new parishes were organized and a number of new schools established. One of the most important was at Portage la Prairie. About 1851 Archdeacon Cochran purchased the land on which the town now stands from the Indian chief, Pe-qua ke-kan, and in the following year a number of people from Red River moved west and formed a new settlement. As soon as his church and rectory were erected, the energetic archdeacon built a log school, and in it Mr. Peter Carrioch taught the children of the settlement for three years. He was followed by the archdeacon's son, Rev. Thomas Cochran, and he in turn by Mr. J. J. Setter, afterwards sheriff of the district.

Bishop Machray took charge of the diocese of Rupert's Land in 1865. From the day of his arrival the importance of schools was always in his mind. In his first conference with his clergy he urged that a school should be maintained in every parish. Above all, he was anxious to reopen the school at St. John's. He had a principal in mind from the first. "My heart is set on an old college friend," he wrote; "1 feel sure he would be quite a backbone to our whole system." That friend was Rev. John McLean. So the old school was revived, Mr. Pritchard's school was amalgamated with it, and the new institution was opened as St. John's College on November 1, 1866. It was incorporated by the legislature in 1871.

The pioneer missionaries of Manitoba were educationists, and Rev. John Black, the first Presbyterian clergyman to settle in Manitoba, was no exception to the rule. He came to Kildonan in 1851, and as soon as his church and manse were built, a school was erected, in which the pastor himself was one of the teachers. For twenty years this school served the community, and then it was transformed into Manitoba College. Rev. Dr. Bryce and the late Rev. Thomas Hart, D. D., were its first professors. The college was incorporated in 1871, and a few years later it was removed to Winnipeg.

It was somewhat late m the history of the Red River country before the Methodist church undertook missionary and educational work in it; but in 1873 Rev. George Young opened a small school in Winnipeg and placed Mrs. D. L. Clink in charge of it. Later in the year he came back from Ontario with money and equipment for a larger school. A building was erected on the lots now occupied by (Trace Church, and in it the Wesleyan Institute was formally opened on November 3, 1873. with Rev. A. Howerman as principal. In 1877 the legislature passed a bill to incorporate Wesley College, but the Wesleyar Institute does not seem to have had the standing required for affiliation with the university, and instead of being transformed into Wesley College, it was discontinued. It was ten years before the Methodists organized a college and affiliated it with the provincial university.

Of course there were no public schools in the province when it was federated with Canada: but during the first session of the first legislature an Act to Establish a System of Education in the Province was introduced. It received its second reading during the afternoon of May 1st. After a little discussion it was referred to committee, and on the evening of the same day was reported to the house, read a third time, and passed. Two days later it received the assent of the lieutenant-governor. This law established a system of public schools, provided for the organization of a board of education to direct the educational affairs of the new province, provided for the election of school trustees and defined their duties somewhat vaguely, and set apart certain sums of public money for the partial support of the public schools created by it.

The act itself was somewhat simple, the Board of Education being empowered to work out in detail the regulations necessary for the management of the new schools. It was to determine courses of study, ln the requirements for teachers' certificates, conduct the necessary examinations, allot the government grants, etc. On June 21st a proclamation of the lieutenant-governor appointed the following gentlemen as a board of education: Rev. Alexandre Tache, Bishop of St. Boniface, Rev. Joseph Lavoie, Rev.. Geo. Dugas, Rev. Joseph Allard, Hon. Joseph Royal, Mr. Pierre Delorme, Mr. Joseph Dubuc, Rev. Robert Machray, Bishop of Rupert's Land, Rev. George Young, Rev. John Black, Rev. Cyprian Pinkhain. C. J. Bird, M. I)., Mr. John Norquay, Mr. Molvneaux St. John. This board was to work in two sections, one having charge of Roman Catholic schools, the other of Protestant schools. The first seven members named above composed the Roman Catholic section, the others the Protestant section. Mr. Royal was named as the superintendent of the Catholic schools, and Mr. St. John of the Protestant schools. When the board met for organization on June 30th, the Bishop of St. Boniface was elected chairman of the Catholic section, and the Bishop of Rupert's Land as presiding officer of the other section.

On July 13th Governor Archibald announced by proclamation the boundaries of the twenty-six school districts into which the settled portion of the province had been divided. The Protestant districts, numbered from 1 to 16, were North St. Peter's, South St. Peter's, Mapleton, North St. Andrew's, Central St. Andrew's, South St. Andrew's, St. Paul's, Kildonan, St. John's, Winnipeg, St. James, Headingly. Poplar Point, High Bluff, Portage, and Westbourne. There were ten Catholic districts, numbered from 17 to 26 inclusive, whose boundaries were determined largely by those of the electoral districts in which the majority of the people were French. Most of them lay along the Red River between the Assiniboine and the international boundary.

The elections of school trustees took place on July 18th, but the people did not take a very active interest in them. Some of the trustees elected were: Hon. Colin Inkster, Mr. Magnus Brown, and Rev. Archdeacon McLean in St. John's; Messrs. John Bourke, A. Fidler. and R. Tait in St. James; Messrs, W. 'fait, J. Cunningham. M. P. P., and J. Taylor in Headingly; Messrs. Chas. Thomas, Hugh Pritchard. and J. Clouston in St. Paul's; and Messrs. Stewart Mulvey, W. G. Fonseca. and A. Wright in Winnipeg. In most of the districts the electors decided to levy a tax for the support of the schools; but in Winnipeg, although it then had a population of about 700, the ratepayers decided to raise money for their school by a subscription rather than a general tax. Of course this was only a temporary arrangement.

The first public schools opened on August 28, 1871. Some of the teachers were to become prominent in the life of the province a little later. In the East Kildonan school the teacher was Mr. Alexander Sutherland, who afterwards entered the legal profession and still later became a member of Premier Norquay's cabinet. In the West Kildonan school Mr. George F. Munroe was in charge. He was afterwards a barrister and prominent in municipal affairs. The Winnipeg school board was late in getting its school organized, and it was not until October 3()th that the first pupils assembled in the small log building on Point Douglas, which the board had secured as a school. The young man behind the teacher's desk that morning was Mr. W. F. Luxton, subsequently founder and editor of the Manitoba Free Press, member of the legislature, school trustee, and member of the Board of Education.

The new school act was not without its defects. Some people declared that many of the public schools were inefficient, others were dissatisfied with the regulations which governed the distribution of the provincial grant. There was a feeling that the grants to individual schools should be proportional to the number of pupils in attendance as well as the time during which the school was kept open. It may have been this feeling which led Hon. Mr. Davis, when he became premier in 1874, to insert the following clause in his published policy: "The amendment of the school laws, so as to secure an accurate list of the attendance of pupils in the schools, duly verified under oath.

Dissatisfaction with the practical working of the Education Act of 1871 seems to have increased rather than diminished as the years went by, and by 1876 there was a very general demand on the part of a large section of the community for radical changes in the law. Those who were anxious to make the schools more effective demanded the abolition of the board of education and the creation of a department of education with a cabinet minister at its head, the establishment of a purely non-sectarian system of public schools, all subject to the same regulations, the appointment of one or more inspectors, the early establishment of a training school for teachers, and a complete change in the method of dividing the provincial grant for the support of public schools. Fourteen years were to pass, however, before the most important of these changes were made, although others were brought about much sooner.

The act of 1871 had made no provision for secondary education, none for university training. These departments of educational work were left, for the time being, to the three denominational colleges, which had been incorporated in 1871. These institutions, hampered as they were by lack of funds, could hardly be expected to undertake the full work of a university; and many public-spirited citizens looked forward to the time when the province itself could undertake that work. It was an ambitious project for a province so small in area and population and with such a small revenue, and many friends of education feared that it would be impossible to secure the co-operation of the different religious denominations in any scheme for a provincial university.

Hon. Alexander Morris was very anxious to signalize his term as lieutenant-governor of Manitoba by the establishment of a provincial university, and he seems to have discussed the matter informally with several leading men of the province. We are informed that he had urged the members of the government to introduce a university bill into the legislature; but they felt that the province was too weak financially to undertake the establishment and support of such an institution. But Governor Morris was too ardent a friend of education to relax his efforts on behalf of a provincial university. On the evening of February 4, 1876, a public meeting was held in Winnipeg in connection with Manitoba College. Two of the gentlemen who made addresses on that occasion presented carefully considered schemes by which a provincial university might be established at no great cost to the province and with which the existing colleges could be affiliated. One of these far-seeing, practical men was Mr. J. W. Taylor, the United States consul, and the other was Rev. Dr. Robertson, superintendent of Presbyterian missions in the west. Dr. Robertson's plan appealed to the lieu tenant-governor, and it was not long before the two men met in consultation over it. A detailed scheme was worked out, and a bill was drawn up to embody it. There is good reason to believe that the governor himself drafted the bill, and this may be one reason why the government consented to introduce it.

The third session of the second Manitoba legislature was opened on January 30, 1877. In the speech from the throne Lieutenant-Governor Morris said, "In view of the necessity of affording the youth of the province the advantages of higher education, a bill will be submitted to you, providing for the establishment on a liberal basis of a university for Manitoba, and for the affiliation there with of such of the existing incorporated colleges as may take advantage of the university. Provision will be made in the bill for the eventual establishment of a provincial normal school for teachers. I regard this measure as one of great importance, and as an evidence of the rapid progress of the country towards the possession of so many of the advantages which the older provinces of the Dominion already enjoy." Strictly speaking, the bill was not a government measure, although Hon. Mr. Royal introduced it on February 1st and moved its second reading eight days later. It received a few amendments m committee, and on February 20th it passed its third reading.

The act provided for the establishment of a university which would outline courses, conduct examinations, and grant degrees. It would not undertake the work of teaching immediately, but professorships might be established later so as to make the institution a teaching university. The governing body, or council, was to consist of representatives of the colleges which might affiliate with the university, a representative of each section of the board of education, and a representative of the graduates of other universities resident in the province. University students were to be free from all religious tests, and in examinations they might answer either in English or in French. The colleges retained con trol of courses in theology and had power to grant theological degrees, and they could select their own text-books in mental and moral science. The financial burden, which some feared, was most carefully avoided, inasmuch as one clause in the act limited the government grant for university purposes to $250 per year. Of course this clause was soon repealed.

St. Boniface College, St. John's College, and Manitoba College affiliated with the provincial university at once and elected their representatives to the council; but Wesley College, which had been incorporated a few days before the university bill passed the legislature, was not in a position to affiliate then. At the first meeting of the university council, held oil October 4, 1877, the Bishop of Rupert's Land was chosen as chancellor, Hon. -Joseph Royal as vice-chancellor, Major Jarvis as registrar, and Mr. I). MacArthur as bursar. A few days later the first university students were enrolled, and on June 9, 1880, the University of Manitoba conferred its first degrees.

About 1881 a Baptist college was organized at Rapid City by Rev, Dr. Crawford, but it did not meet with the support expected and was closed in 1883. A year or two later it was reopened in Brandon under the direction of Rev. S. J McKee, D. I)., and received more generous support from the denomination which it was established to serve. It has since grown into a large institution, doing work in arts and theology and furnishing a commercial training to those who desire it. It has never affiliated with the provincial university; and although its friends have asked the legislature to give it degree-conferring powers, the request has not been granted.

In 1882 Manitoba Medical College was affiliated with the provincial university, and six years later Wesley College was reorganized and joined the sisterhood of affiliated institutions. The College of Pharmacy was affiliated in 1902 and Manitoba Agricultural College in 1908, although the latter withdrew from the union in 1912 and became an independent institution. The Law Society of Manitoba accepts matriculation standing in the university as evidence of fitness to enter upon the study of law, although it has not yet entrusted to the university the work of examining candidates for admission to the bar, and certain degrees in law are conferred by the university.

The university council has not been a unit in regard to the lines on which the institution should be developed, some members wishing it to remain an examining and degree-conferring body, others desiring to make it a teaching university. In 1886 the University Act was amended in such a way that the university seemed debarred from assuming the work of instruction; but a year later another amendment gave the graduates of the university increased representation in the council, and most of the new members joined the party which wished to make the university a teaching institution. Circumstances combined to favor the policy of this party. All over the continent there was a popular demand that the natural sciences be given a larger place on college and university curricula, and Manitoba's colleges were financially unable to meet this demand. For a few years, commencing in 1890, they attempted to co-operate in the teaching of science; but the plan was not satisfactory, and in 1893 the University Act was amended once more to permit the teaching of science and mathematics.

In 1878 the university applied to the Dominion for a grant of land as an endowment, and this application was endorsed by the legislature a year later. A grant of 150,000 acres was secured by the settlement made in 1885, although the patents to these lands were not secured until about 1898. The lands then became a source of a growing revenue to the university. The other sources were the annual grant from the provincial government and the income from a considerable bequest received some years before from the estate of A. K. Isbister, the gentleman who was the champion of the Red River people in their struggle; against the monopoly of the Hudson's Bay Company in the pre-confederation years. Under the circumstances the university council felt justified in erecting a building. The Old Driving Park was secured from the Dominion government as a site, and the first university building was erected on it m 1900. A further extension of university teaching took place in 1904, and three years later the council decided that the university should aim to give instruction in all branches of higher education. In conformity with this policy a department of engineering was organized, and its field has been widened as fast as the finances of the university will permit.

The fact that the University of Manitoba had been transformed into a teaching institution gave increased strength to an agitation in favor of making it a provincial university in every respect. In 1908 the provincial government-appointed a commission to investigate the educational needs and conditions of Manitoba, study the character of university work done elsewhere, and make recommendations in regard to the future policy and management of the University of Manitoba. Unfortunately the members of the commission could not agree, and the government received several reports from the sections into which it divided. As a result the questions of site, future policy, and control remained in suspense for several years. A president for the university was chosen in 1912, and it is hoped that he will lead the institution out of the wilderness.

An amendment to the school law, passed in 1879, fixed the number of members in the Protestant section of the board of education at twelve and the members of the Catholic section at nine, provided for the appointment of inspectors, and defined their duties. The government grant in aid of schools was increased about the same time. Previous to 1881 the government had made no provision for secondary education, but in that year an amendment to the School Act remedied the defect. The Winnipeg school board promptly took advantage of the amendment, and in the summer of 1882 it established a high school, calling it a collegiate department. A collegiate department was organized m Brandon a year later', and in a short time a similar secondary school was established at Portage la Prairie. A few years later schools, known as intermediate schools, were established in several of the smaller towns for the purpose of providing a certain amount of secondary education; and still later a number of larger and better equipped secondary schools, called high schools, were organized.

In 1882 a normal school department was opened in connection with the schools of "Winnipeg, its first principal being Mr. E. L. Byington, and ir a few years it developed into an independent provincial normal school, to which a model school was subsequently attached. There are also normal schools for the training of third class teachers at Brandon, Dauphin, Portage la Prairie, and Manitou; the French teachers receive their professional training at a normal school in St. Boniface; there is a training school for Mennonite teachers at Gretna, one for Ruthenian teachers at Brandon, and one for Polish teachers in Winnipeg.

The story of the dissatisfaction with the School Act of 1871, which resulted in its repeal during 1890, has been told in a previous chapter. Most of the changes made by the new law had been favored by Mr. Norquav; but he hoped that they could be made gradually and with little friction between Roman Catholics and the remainder of the community, and during his premiership the time did not seem ripe for legislation in the matter. One clause of the repealed act provided a compulsory attendance law for any school district which wished to adopt it; but this clause did not find a place in the new act of 1890. Since that time there has been a strong conviction in the minds of many friends of education that a compulsory school Law for the province should be enacted, and this conviction is strengthened by a knowledge of the conditions and problems which are growing out of the great increase in Manitoba's foreign-born population.

Commercial education has never been neglected in Manitoba. The first commercial college of Winnipeg was opened in September, 1876, and since that time many similar schools have been established with varying success in "Winnipeg and other towns of the province. In 1896 the school board of "Winnipeg made a commercial course a part of the curriculum in its collegiate institute, and similar courses of instruction are now provided in the other collegiate institutes of^ the province.

Through the generosity of Sir William Macdonald manual training was introduced into the schools of Winnipeg in the latter part of 1900. Sir William supplied the necessary equipment and paid the salaries of instructors for three years, and at the end of that period the school board, thoroughly convinced of the value of the work, made it a regular part of the school course. About the same time it arranged to give the girls in its schools instruction in needlework, cookery, and other domestic arts. The movement spread, and in most of the towns and in some of the rural districts manual training and domestic science now find places in the school programmes. Quite recently steps have been taken to make technical training a part of the work done in the public schools. The government took the matter up and appointed a commission on technical education in 1910; but without waiting for the report of the commission or for the formulation of a definite policy on the matter by the department of education, the Winnipeg school board decided to undertake technical education, and in 1912 two large and completely equipped technical high schools were opened in the city.

As agriculture must always be the leading industry of the province, the government recognized the importance of providing for all who wish it instruction in the scientific principles which underlie successful methods of farming, as well as some practical training in farm work. A farm was secured on the south side of the Assiniboine River a short distance west of the limits of the city of Winnipeg, suitable buildings were erected upon it, machinery and stock were provided, a staff of instructors engaged, and on November 6, 1906, the Manitoba Agricultural College was opened. There were 68 students in attendance and applications from 90 more had been received. Within a few years the college was affiliated with the provincial university, and special courses were arranged for students who wished to take the degree of bachelor of scientific agriculture. The value of the college was soon recognized, and the attendance increased beyond the capacity of the buildings. A larger site was secured on the west bank of the Red River, and on it a number of commodious and well-designed buildings are being erected. When they are completed, the institution will be moved into them, and Manitoba will then have one of the most complete agricultural colleges in Canada.


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