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A History of the County of Yarmouth, N.S.
Chapter XVII. Social Progress from 1800. Negro Slaves. New Settlements. Salmon River. Kemptville. Beaver River. Ohio. Hebron. Carleton. Temperance and Total Abstinence Societies. Great Fire of 1820

When the Loyalists left Shelburne, in several cases they brought with them to Tusket and Yarmouth,


They had accompanied their masters from New York a^ other cities in the States. In many cases families of them lived in their masters’ houses, or in other houses provided for them; and there is reason to believe, that as far as work or usage or houses or clothing were concerned, they were better cared for, and probably knew they were, than many of those who had been liberated. After all allowance however has been made for kindness and consideration, the institution remained. In this connection, an interesting trial took place in 1787 in Shelburne. Jesse Gray, of Argyle, had sold to William Mangham, a colored woman named Mary Postill, for one hundred bushels of potatoes. Gray was tried on a charge of misdemeanor. The wrong was not the sale of a slave, but the sale of a slave of which he was not the real owner. Proofs having been brought forward that she had really belonged to Gray in one of the Southern States; the Court at once acquitted him, and she became a| much the property of Mangham for a hundred bushels of potatoes as a horse would for the same consideration.

But iu the course of a very few years, public opinion in this Province reprobated the practice. Notwithstanding, as late as the years 1801 and 1802 there were several negro slaves bought and sold in this County. As one of the last traces of that institution I here insert one of these bills of sale:—

“Know all men by these Presents that I, A. B., of the Township of Yarmouth for and in consideration of the sum of thirty-nine pounds in hand paid to me by C. D., have bargained and sold to him and by these presents do grant bargain and sell to him the said C. D. a certain Negro Boy named Jack, about seven years of age, born in my house from a wench and a man, both my sole property; and I, the said A. B., do promise to warrant and defend the said Negro Boy Jack against all lawful claim or claims of any person or persons whatsoever.

“In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty-third day of December, 1801. "

“A. B.

“Signed, Bealed, and delivered in the presence of

“E. F.
“G. H.
“J. K”

In addition to this bill of sale there are several others, one of which was of a young negro woman twenty-eight, who was sold the next year, 1802, for £40. That same coloured woman — together with her husband, was liberated by her master Colonel Bond, and is still living near Weymouth. She is therefore now more than a hundred years old. From freed slaves, left in many cases in destitution and utter inability and indisposition to provide for themselves, the SALMON RIVER SETTLEMENT in this Township originated. With a few exceptions the settlement has not been ornamental to the County, and scarcely useful; but it may be, that part of the blame of this state of affairs ought to be borne by that portion of the population, who have been themselves taught the blessings of iudustry, sobriety and useful knowledge.

The older settled parts of the County, have so far engrossed our attention, only because they were all that existed. But early in the nineteenth century, the healthy mark of NEW GROUND being opened up claims some notice: the principal of which are Kemptville, Beaver River, Hebron, and Carleton, The first settler at
KEMPTVILLE was Abner Andrews; who, in taking up his abode in that place, had advanced several miles beyond the extreme inhabited point. The Commissioner of Lands, the lajjs Dr. Farish, laid out this pioneer settler, Mr. Andrews’ land in 1821; and, at that time, the embryo settlement was named Kemptville, in honour of the then Governor Sir James Kempt.


like Salmon River, Eel Brook, Smelt Brook, and other waters bearing names, arising from the natural products or inhabitants,—probably received its name from abounding in beavers, either at, or before, the arrival of the English. The settlement,—which at first took the name of the river, but part of which has been named more lately Maitland, after Sir Peregrine Maitland, a former Governor,—is an offshoot from Yarmouth of the old settled families of the Eaymonds, Comings, Crosbys, Perrys and others; all names well Jmown in the County. This village suffered very severely from


Independent of the havoc made in Glare Township, in which the Chapel was burnt, and the venerable Abbe Sigogne severely injured, the fire extended into this Township and burnt up the houses, barns, mills, crops, stocks, and farming implements of 34 families. Grain, cattle, furniture, clothes, and everything combustible within the burnt district were all consumed. The magistrates of the Township of Yarmouth stated that, after due inquiry, “the number of souls included in those families who are turned out destitute and in want, is one hundred and fifty.” The distresses of the sufferers enlisted, far and wide, the liveliest sympathy of the most practical kind. Large sums were subscribed in Halifax, St. John, Boston, and other places. Sir James Kempt proved himself a most fatherly Governor. On receipt of the magistrates’ authentic information, he caused one hundred great coats, two hundred pairs of stockings, and two hundred pairs of mitts to be sent from the Military stores: and for very many years the coats, which were conspicuous both for make and material, were the visible if mute reminders of the disaster. In the way of bedding also, he sent one hundred blankets, one hundred and fifty rugs, one hundred and fifty sheets, one hundred bed covers, one hundred holsters, and fifty beds. The receipt of those articles, very inadequate, even with other assistance, but very acceptable— was acknowledged by a letter from the magistrates, who thanked him for the very kind and handsome manner in which his Excellency had bestowed it: and [they add] we are happy in saying that the public grant made by your Excellency and his Majesty’s Council, added to your own very liberal donation, and the contributions of many beneficent individuals both in Halifax and eleewhere, will enable us to keep the destitute in a state of comparative comfort, until the fruits of the earth and the exertions of another reason, enable them to provide for themselves. We have etc.

"Benj. Barnard.
“J. N. Bond.
“H. G. Parish.
“John Binoay.”

Since that calamity the settlement has been very prosperous, and nearly every trace of it has long since passed away. There is a flourishing shipbuilding business, for which there are many facilities, and which, together with fishing and lumbering, are carried on. The settlement also deserves notice from the circumstance that here THE FIRST TEMPERANCE SOCIETY in Nova Scotia, or according to some, in North America, or according to others, in the world, was formed. The preamble to the original list of names,—for at first there wore no officers,—will best explain the motives and principles of those who joined the Society:—

“Beaver river temperance society.

"We the undersigned firmly believing and most assuredly gathering that the too great use of spirituous liquors is prejudicial to the body and souls of mankind in general both spiritual and temporal, to remedy this great and spreading evil, we therefore whose names are hereunto annexed do for ever renounce the' use of ardent or distilled spirituous liquors except what may be taken as a medicine in case of sickness. And we pray Almighty God to establish our hearts and strengthen our serious resolutions.

“April 25, 1829.”

Then follow the signatures. Shortly after, it was thought necessary to organize the Society and appoint officers for the more effectually carrying its objects into operation. The first officers were—

President—Mr. Josiah Porter.
Vice Presidents—Jonathan Raymond, and Jonathan Corning.
Executive Committee—Daniel Raymond, Jabez Landers, William Parry, Daniel Corning, Ebenezer Corning, and David Parry.

This Parent Society has given birth to many children, who have done great good in their generation.


About fifty years ago, I believe, when there was a great rage for emigrating to Ohio, and several families had left for that then very distant El Dorado of the West, Nehemiah and Benjamin Churchill, sons of Ezra, and grandsons of Lemuel of Chebogue, were smitten with the “Ohio fever,” as it was called. Not being able to carry out their plans from some cause, they removed back into the woods with their families, several miles beyond the most distant settler at the “Ponds,” as all the country above the mills at Milton was then called, and gave their farms the name of their wished-for western home; which has thus become the name -of the settlement. There is a good mill site in the centre of the village. At first the settlers were engaged in lumbering,—but more lately the people have been chiefly occupied in farming and bringing cordwood to the Yarmouth market. The name of


was given to that settlement, as before said, by Captain Landers. That was his property, where he hoped to spend the remainder of his days—the centre of his shipbuilding operations. His house was at first apart from all others; but, in the course of years, the junction of the Ohio road with the main post road became a desirable place of business, and was called “Hebron Corner.” As the village extended beyond this spot, the latter half of the name was left out, and the whole settlement finally became Hebron. Having no fishing, lumbering, or milling privileges, the community has become manufacturing,—chiefly tanning and hoot and shoe making. The number of persons depending on this industry being about three hundred, and the gross amount of Capital engaged in a year’s business being about $200,000.

With regard to


it may he said that Mr. Daniel Kaymond was the first settler in this part of the County. It is true that twenty years before, a number of persons,—the tradition says nine—residing on the river above and about Tusket village, formed a co-partnery for milling purposes. They carried out pwrt of their plan only, and did little more than effect a clearing in the neighbourhood of “ Nine Partners’ Falls,” — a name given, as some say, in allusion to the partnery: or, as others again say, with reference to the physical features of the place. But neither alternative is very conclusive. Mr. Kaymond built a mill in the centre of the present village, and a year or two after he settled there he was followed by a number of Chebogue families, viz.: Hiltons, Dennis, Crawley and Perry, who, together with others, have succeeded in establishing one of the most thriving settlements in the County.

Carleton was also formerly named Temperance—a name which is not yet wholly extinct. The origin of it was this: The first settlers saw the evils of intemperance, and agreed to eschew, as a beverage, all kinds of intoxicating liquors. Total abstinence was not, as yet, their idea, and to assist them in their most excellent design, they gave the settlement the name of “Temperance.” There is no fact more capable of demonstration than that the early settlers of this County were far from being teetotallers. Drinking was a standing institution, equally and impartially applied to all sorts of occasions, serious and light. No visit was made, nor enterprise undertaken, without the aid of this powerful auxiliary. Births, weddings and funerals, were all suitable occasions and always in order; and the custom extended to both sexes. No road could be built, nor frame of a Church raised, without rum. In the earliest days of Yarmouth the amount of rum sold to the half starving people was simply enormous; and, in some of the accounts rendered by the traders of the day, liquor of some kind forms every second or third item. In one account of thirty-eight items, twenty-eight are for rum, toddy, cider or flip. Without palliating or excusing the intemperate language of many extreme total abstinence advocates, we see from those facts what great necessity there was for such prudent conduct as that of the pioneer settlers of Carleton.

Whilst speaking of the rise and naming of new settlements, there can he no more suitable opportunity for appending a list of names of well-known places, traced hack to their earliest mention, in one way or another :—

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