Here I am exploring
the history of the Health Industry in Canada and should you have any
information you can provide I'd be happy to hear from you.
Pearson's Liberal government,
Canada's health care was expanded through the Medical Care Act, or Medicare to
provide near universal coverage to all Canadians 'according to their
need for such services and irrespective of their ability to pay'.
I felt the summary
on Wikipedia gives as good a description as any...
Health care in Canada is delivered through a publicly funded health
care system, which is mostly free at the point of use and has most
services provided by private entities. It is guided by the
provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984. The government assures
the quality of care through federal standards. The government does
not participate in day-to-day care or collect any information about
an individual's health, which remains confidential between a person
and his or her physician. Canada's provincially based Medicare
systems are cost-effective partly because of their administrative
simplicity. In each province each doctor handles the insurance claim
against the provincial insurer. There is no need for the person who
accesses health care to be involved in billing and reclaim. Private
insurance is only a minimal part of the overall health care system.
Competitive practices such as advertising are kept to a minimum,
thus maximizing the percentage of revenues that go directly towards
care. In general, costs are paid through funding from income taxes,
although British Columbia is the only province to impose a fixed
monthly premium which is waived or reduced for those on low incomes.
There are no deductibles on basic health care and co-pays are
extremely low or non-existent (supplemental insurance such as Fair
Pharmacare may have deductibles, depending on income). A health card
is issued by the Provincial Ministry of Health to each individual
who enrolls for the program and everyone receives the same level of
care. There is no need for a variety of plans because virtually all
essential basic care is covered, including maternity and infertility
problems. Depending on the province, dental and vision care may not
be covered but are often insured by employers through private
companies. In some provinces, private supplemental plans are
available for those who desire private rooms if they are
hospitalized. Cosmetic surgery and some forms of elective surgery
are not considered essential care and are generally not covered.
These can be paid out-of-pocket or through private insurers. Health
coverage is not affected by loss or change of jobs, as long as
premiums are up to date, and there are no lifetime limits or
exclusions for pre-existing conditions.
Pharmaceutical medications are covered by public funds for the
elderly or indigent, or through employment-based private insurance.
Drug prices are negotiated with suppliers by the federal government
to control costs. Family physicians are chosen by individuals. If a
patient wishes to see a specialist or is counseled to see a
specialist, a referral can be made by a GP. Preventive care and
early detection are considered important and yearly checkups are
encouraged. Early detection not only extends life expectancy and
quality of life, but cuts down overall costs.
The Medical Profession and Medical Education in Canada
By Donald MacLean (1865) This wee book really tells of the
deplorable condition of medicine at this point in our history.
The Medical Profession in Upper Canada
1783 to 1850
By William Canniff (1894)
Initial Impressions of medical care in
This is an article from Alastair's practical experience of the
The Canadian Nurse
A Quarterly Journal for the Nursing Profession in Canada.
Canadian Medical Review
The Canadian Journal of
Medicine and Surgery
A Journal published monthly in the interest of Medicine and Surgery,
J. J. Cassidy, M.D., Editor. Vol I. January to June 1897. (pdf)
Hands that Heal
The Story of Dr. J. Francis Smith, a Blinded Canadian War Veteran
Who, With the Help of His Wife, Dr. Marion Dick, Has Become an
Outstanding Pioneer in the Osteopathic Treatment of Mental and
Nervous Disorders (1939) (pdf)