The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay
Including The French Traders of North-Western
and of the
North-West, XY, and Astor Fur Companies
THE Hudson's Bay Company! What a record
this name represents of British pluck and daring, of patient
industry and hardy endurance, of wild adventure among savage
Indian tribes, and of exposure to danger by mountain, precipice,
and seething torrent and wintry plain!
In two full centuries the Hudson's Bay
Company, under its original Charter, undertook financial
enterprises of the greatest magnitude, promoted exploration and
discovery, governed a vast domain in the northern part of the
American Continent, and preserved to the British Empire the wide
territory handed over to Canada in 1870. For nearly a generation
since that time the veteran Company has carried on successful
trade in competition with many rivals, and has shown the vigour
present History includes not only the record of the remarkable
exploits of this well-known Company, but also the accounts of
the daring French soldiers and explorers who disputed the claim
of the Company in the seventeenth century, and in the eighteenth
century actually surpassed the English adventurers in
penetrating the vast interior of Rupert's Land.
Special attention is given in this work to
the picturesque history of what was the greatest rival of the
Hudson's Bay Company, viz, the North-West Fur Company of
Montreal, as well as to the extraordinary spirit of the X Y
Company and the Astor Fur Company of New York.
A leading feature of this book is the
adequate treatment for the first time of the history of the
well-nigh eighty years just closing, from the union of all the
fur traders of British North America under the name of the
Hudson's Bay Company. This period, beginning with the career of
the Emperor-Governor, Sir George Simpson (1821), and covering
the life, adventure, conflicts, trade, and development of the
vast region stretching from Labrador to Vancouver Island, and
north to the Mackenzie River and the Yukon, down to the present
year, is the most important part of the Company's history.
For the task thus undertaken the author is
well fitted. He has had special opportunities for becoming
acquainted with the history, position, and inner life of the
Hudson's Bay Company. He has lived for nearly thirty years in
Winnipeg, for the whole of that time in sight of Fort Garry, the
fur traders' capital, or what remains of it; he has visited many
of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts from Fort William to
Victoria, in the Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods region,
in Manitoba, Assiniboia, Alberta, and British Columbia; in those
districts he has run the rapids, crossed the portages, surveyed
the ruins of old forts, and fixed the localities of
long-forgotten posts; he is acquainted with a large number of
the officers of the Company, has enjoyed their hospitality, read
their journals, and listened with interest to their tales of
adventure in many out-of-the-way posts; he is a. lover of the
romance, and story, and tradition of the fur traders' past.
The writer has had full means of examining
documents, letters, journals, business records, heirlooms, and
archives of the fur traders both in Great Britain and Canada. He
returns thanks to the custodians of many valuable originals,
which he has used, to the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company
in 1881, Right Hon. G. J. Goschen, who granted him the privilege
of consulting all Hudson's Bay Company records up to the date of
1821, and he desires to still more warmly acknowledge the
permission given him by the distinguished patron of literature
and education, the present Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company,
Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, to read any documents of public
importance in the Hudson's Bay House in London. This unusual
opportunity granted the author was largely used by him in 1896
and again in 1899.
Taking the advice of his publishers, the
author, instead of publishing several volumes of annals of the
Company, has condensed the important features of the history
into one fair-sized volume, but has given in an Appendix
references and authorities which may afford the reader, who
desires more detailed information on special periods, the
sources of knowledge for fuller research.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
Dn favor which has been shown to the"
Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company" has resulted in
a large measure from its being written by a native-born
Canadian, who is familiar with much of the ground over which the
Company for two hundred years held sway.
A number of corrections have been made and
the book has been brought up to date for this Edition.
It has been a pleasure to the Author, who
has expressed himself without fear or favor regarding the
Company men and their opponents, that he has received from the
greater number of his readers commendations for his fairness and
insight into the affairs of the Company and its wonderful
KILMADOCK, WINNIPEG, August 19, 1910.
CHAPTER I - THE FIRST VOYAGE FOR TRADE. Famous Companies—" The old lady of
Fenchurch Street "The first voyage—Radisson and
Groseilliers—Spurious claim of the French of having reached the
Bay—"Journal published by Prince Society"—The claim
invalid—Early voyages of Radisson—The Frenchmen go to
Boston—Cross over to England—Help from Royalty—Fiery Rupert—The
King a stockholder—Many hitherto unpublished factsCapt.
Zachariah Gillam—Charles Fort built on Rupert River—The
CHAPTER II. - HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY FOUNDED. Royal charters—Good Queen Bess--"So
miserable a wilderness"—Courtly stockholders—Correct spelling—"
The nonsense of the Charters "—Mighty rivers—Lords of the
territory—To execute justice—War on infidels—Power to eize—"
Skin for skin "—Friends of the Red man.
CHAPTER III. - METHODS OF TRADE. Rich Mr. Portman—Good ship Prince
Rupert—The early adventurers—"Book of Common Prayer"—Five
forts—Voting a funeral—Worth of a beaver—To Hudson Bay and back
—Selling the pelts—Bottles of sack—Fat dividends—"Victorious as
CHAPTER IV. - THREE GREAT GOVERNORS. Alen of high station—Prince Rupert
primus—Prince James, "nemine contradicente"—The hero of the
hour—Churchill River named—Plate of solid gold—Off to the tower.
CHAPTER V. - TWO ADROIT ADVENTURERS. Peter Radisson and "Mr. Gooseberry"
again—Radisson v. Gillam—Back to France—A wife's
influence—Paltry vessels —Radisson's diplomacy—Deserts to
England—Shameful duplicity—"A hogshead of claret"—Adventurers
appreciative—Twenty-five years of Radisson's life hitherto
unknown—"In a low and mean condition"—The Company in
Chancery—Lucky Radisson—A Company pensioner.
CHAPTER VI. - FRENCH RIVALRY. The golden lilies in danger—"To arrest
Radisson"—The land called "Unknown"—A chain of claim—Imaginary
pretensions—Chevalier de Troyes—The brave Lemoynes—Hudson Bay
forts captured—A litigious governor—Laugh at treaties —The glory
of France—Enormous claims—Consequential damages.
CHAPTER VII. - RYSWICK AND UTRECHT. The "Grand Monarque" humbled—Caught
napping—The Company in peril—Glorious Utrecht—Forts
restored—Damages to be considered—Commission useless.
CHAPTER VIII. - DREAM OF A NORTH-WEST
rises—Jealousy aroused—Arthur Dobbs, Esq.—An ingenious
attack—Appeal to the "Old Worthies"—Captain Christopher
Middleton—Was the Company in earnest? The sloop Furnace—Dobbs'
fierce attack—The great subscription—Independent
expedition—"Henry Ellis, gentleman"-"Without success"—Dobbs'
CHAPTER IX. - THE INTERESTING BLUE-BOOK OF
1749. "Le roi est
mort"—Royalty unfavourable—Earl of Halifax—"Company
asleep"—Petition to Parliament—Neglected discovery—Timidity or
caution—Strong "Prince of Wales" —Increase of stock—A timid
witness—Claims of discovery —To make Indians Christians—Charge
of disloyalty—New Company promises largely—Result nil.
CHAPTER X. - FRENCH CANADIANS EXPLORE THE
"Western Sea"—Ardent Duluth—'Kaministiquia "Indian boasting—Pere
Charlevoix—Father Gonor—The man of the hour
:—Verendrye----Indian map-maker—The North Shore--A line of
forts—The Assiniboine country—A notable manuscript—A marvellous
journey—Glory, but not wealth—Post of the Western Sea.
CHAPTER XI. - THE SCOTTISH MERCHANTS OF
Unyielding old Cadot—Competition—The enterprising Henry —Leads
the way—Thomas Curry—The elder Finlay—Plundering Indians—Grand
Portage—A famous mart—The plucky Frobishers—The Sleeping Giant
aroused—Fort Cumberland—Churchill River—Indian rising—The deadly
smallpox—The whites saved.
CHAPTER XII. - DISCOVERY OF THE COPPERMINE. Samuel Hearne—"The Mungo Park of
Canada"—Perouse complains—The North-West Passage—Indian
guides—Two failures—Third journey successful—Smokes the
calumet—Discovers Arctic Ocean—Cruelty to the Eskimos—Error in
latitude—Remarkable Indian woman—Capture of Prince of Wales
Fort—Criticism by Umfreville.
CHAPTER XIII. - FORTS ON HUDSON BAY LEFT
Graham's "Memo."—Prince of Wales Fort—The garrison—Trade--York
Norton—Cumberland House—Upper Assiniboine—Rainy Lake—Brandon
House—Red River—Conflict of the Companies.
CHAPTER XIV. - THE NORTH-WEST COMPANY
Bay Company aggressive—The great McTavish—The Frobishers—Pond
and Pangman dissatisfied—Gregory and McLeod—Strength of the
North-West Company—Vessels to be built—New route from Lake
Superior sought—Good will at times—Bloody Pond—Wider union,
1787—Fort Alexandria—Mouth of the Souris—Enormous fur
trade—Wealthy Nor'-Westers—"The Haunted House".
CHAPTER XV. - VOYAGES OF SIR ALEXANDER
MACKENZIE. A young Highlander—To rival Hearne—Fort Chipewyan
built —French Canadian voyageurs—Trader Leroux—Perils of the
route—Post erected on Arctic Coast—Return journey —Pond's
miscalculations—Hudson Bay Turner—Roderick McKenzie's
hospitality—Alexander Mackenzie—Astronomy and
mathematics—Winters on Peace River—Terrific journey —The Pacific
Slope—Dangerous Indians—Pacific Ocean, 1793—North-West Passage
by land—Great achievement—A notable book.
CHAPTER XVI. - THE GREAT EXPLORATION.
Grand Portage on American soil—Anxiety about the boundary —David
Thompson, astronomer and surveyor—His instructions—By swift
canoe—The land of beaver—A dash to the Mandans—Stone Indian
House—Fixes the boundary at Pembina—Sources of the Mississippi—A
marvellous explorer —Pacific Slope explored—Thompson down the
Kootenay and Columbia—Fiery Simon Fraser in New
Caledonia—Discovers Fraser River—Sturdy John Stuart—Thompson
River—Bourgeois Quesnel—Transcontinental expeditions.
CHAPTER XVII. - THE X Y COMPANY. "Le
Marquis" Simon McTavish unpopular—Alexander Mackenzie, his
rival—Enormous activity of the "Potties"- Why called X Y—Five
rival posts at Souris—Sir Alexander, the silent partner—Old Lion
of Montreal roused—"Posts of the King"—Schooner sent to Hudson
Bay—Nor'-Westers erect two posts on Hudson Bay—Supreme folly—Old
and new Nor'-Westers unite—List of partners.
CHAPTER XVIII. - THE LORDS OF THE LAKES AND
FORESTS. - I New route to Kaministiquia—Vivid sketch of Fort
William "Cantine Salope"—Lively Christmas week—The feasting
partners—Ex-Governor Masson's good work—Four great Mackenzies—A
literary bourgeois—Three handsome domoiselles—"The man in the
moon"--Story of "Bras Croche"—Around Cape Horn—Astoria taken
over—A hotheaded trader—Sad case of "Littlo Labrie"—Punch on New
Year's Day—The heart of a "vacher" .
CHAPTER XIX. - THE LORDS OF THE LAKES AND
FORESTS. - II Harmon and his book—An honest man—"Straight as
an arrow" —New views—An uncouth giant—"Gaelic, English, French,
and Indian oaths"—McDonell, "Le Prêtre"—St. Andrew's
Day—"Fathoms of tobacco"—Down the Assiniboine—An entertaining
journal—A good editor—A too frank trader -"Gun fire ten yards
away"—Herds of buffalo—Packs and pemmican—"The fourth
Gospel"—Drowning of Henry -"The weather cleared up"—Lost for
forty days "Cheepe," the corpse—Larocque and the Mandans -
McKenzie and his half-breed children.
CHAPTER XX. - THE LORDS OF THE LAKES AND
FORESTS. - III Dashing French trader—"The country of
fashion"—An air of great superiority—The road is that of
heaven—Enough to intimidate a Caesar—"The Bear" and the "Little
Branch" —Yet more rum—A great Irishman—"In the wigwam of
Wabogish dwelt his beautiful daughter"—Wedge of gold—Johnston
and Henry Schoolcraft—Duncan Cameron on Lake Superior—His views
of trade—Peter Grant, the ready writer—Paddling the canoe—Indian
folk-lore----Chippewa burials—Remarkable men and great
financiers, marvellous explorers, facile traders.
CHAPTER XXI. - THE IMPULSE OF UNION.
North-West and X Y Companies unite—Recalls the Homeric
period—Feuds forgotten—Men perform prodigies—The new fort
re-christened—Vessel from Michilimackinac—The old canal—Wills
builds Fort Gibraltar—A lordly sway—The "Beaver Club"—Sumptuous
table—Exclusive society -"Fortitude in Distress"—Political
leaders in Lower Canada.
CHAPTER XXII. - THE ASTOR FUR COMPANY.
Old John Jacob Astor—American Fur Company—The Missouri Company—A
line of posts—Approaches the Russians—Negotiates with
Nor'-Westers--Fails—Four North-West officials join Astor—Songs
of the voyageurs—True Britishers—Voyage of the
Toaquin—Rollicking Nor'Westers in Sandwich Islands—Astoria
built—David Thompson appears—Terrible end of the Tonquin—Astor's
overland expedition—Washington Irving's "Astoria", a romance The
Beaver rounds the Cape—McDougall and his small-pox phial—The
Beaver sails for Canton.
CHAPTER XXIII. - LORD SELKIRK'S COLONY.
Alexander Mackenzie's book—Lord Selkirk interested—Emigration a
boon—Writes to Imperial Government—In 1802 looks to Lake
Winnipeg—Benevolent project of trade Compelled to choose Prince
Edward Island—Opinion as to Hudson's Bay Company
Charter—Nor'-Westers alarmed—Hudson's Bay Company's
Stock—Purchases AssiniboiaAdvertises the new colony—Religion no
disqualification—Sends first colony—Troubles of the
project—Arrive at York Factory—The winter—The mutiny—"Essence of
Malt"- Journey inland—A second party—Third party under Archibald
Macdonald—From Helmsdale—The number of colonists.
CHAPTER XXIV. - TROUBLE BETWEEN THE
COMPANIES. Nor'-westers oppose the colony—Reason why—A
considerable literature—Contentions of both parties—Both in
faulty—Miles Macdonell's mistake—Nor'-Wester arrogance—Duncan
Cameron's ingenious plan—Stirring up the Chippewas -
Nor'-Westers warn colonists to depart—McLeod's hitherto
unpublished narrative—Vivid account of a brave defence —Chain
shot from the blacksmith's smithy—Fort Douglas begun—Settlers
driven out—Governor Semple arrives—Cameron last Governor of Fort
Gibraltar—Cameron sent to Britain as a prisoner—Fort Gibraltar
captured—Fort Gibraltar decreases, Fort Douglas increases—Free
traders take to the plains—Indians favour the colonists.
CHAPTER XXV. - THE SKIRMISH OF SEVEN OAKS.
Leader of the Bois Brolés—A candid letter—Account of a
prisoner—"Yellow Head"—Speech to the Indians—The chief knows
nothing—On fleet Indian ponies—An eyewitness in Fort Douglas—A
rash Governor—The massacre - "For God's sake save my life"—The
Governor and twenty others slain—Colonists driven out—Eastern
levy meets the settlers—Effects seized—Wild revelry—Chanson of
CHAPTER XXVI. - LORD SELKIRK TO THE RESCUE.
The Earl in Montreal—Alarming news—Engages a body of Swiss—The
De Meurons—Em bark for ,the North-WestKawtawabetay's story—Hears
of Seven Oaks—Lake Superior —Lord Selkirk—A doughty
Douglas—Seizes Fort William —Canoes upset and Nor'-Westers
drowned—"A banditti" —The Earl's blunder—A winter march—Fort
Douglas recaptured—His Lordship soothes the settlers—An Indian
treaty—"The Silver Chief"—The Earl's note-book.
CHAPTER XXVII. - THE BLUE-BOOK or 1819 AND
THE NORTH-WEST TRIALS. British law disgraced—Governor
Sherbrooke's distress—A commission decided on—Few unbiassed
Canadians—Colonel Coltman chosen—Over ice and snow—Alarming
rumours—The Prince Regent's orders--Coltman at Red River—The
Earl submissive—The Commissioner's report admirable—The
celebrated Reinhart case—Disturbing lawsuits—Justice perverted—A
storehouse of facts—Sympathy of Sir Walter Scott—Lord Selkirk's
death—Tomb at Orthes, in France.
CHAPTER XXVIII. - MEN WHO PLAYED A PART.
The crisis reached—Consequences of Seven Oaks—The noble Earl—His
generous spirit—His mistakes—Determined courage Deserves the
laurel crown—The first GovernorMacdonell's difficulties—His
unwise step—A captain in red —Cameron's adroitness—A wearisome
imprisonment—Last governor of Fort Gibraltar—The Metis
chief—Half-breed son of old Cuthbert—A daring hunter—Warden of
the plains—Lord Selkirk's agent—A Red River patriarch—A faithful
witness—The French bard—Western war songs - Pierriche Falcon.
CHAPTER XXIX. - GOVERNOR SIMPSON UNITES ALL
INTERESTS. Both Companies in danger—Edward Ellice, a
mediator—George Simpson, the man of destiny—Old feuds
buried—Gatherings at Norway House—Governor Simpson's skill—His
marvellous energy—Reform in trade—Morality low—A famous canoe
voyage—Salutes fired—Pompous ceremony at Norway House—Strains of
the bagpipe—Across the Rocky Mountains—Fort Vancouver
visited—Great executive ability—The governor knighted—Sir George
goes round the world —Troubles of a book—Meets the
Russians—Estimate of Sir George.
CHAPTER XXX. - THE LIFE OF THE TRADERS.
Lonely trading posts—Skilful letter writers—Queer old Peter
Fidler—Famous library—A remarkable will—A stubborn
Highlander—Life at Red River—Badly-treated PangmanFounding
trading houses—Beating up recruits—Priest Provencher—A
fur-trading mimic—Life far north—"Ruled with a rod of
iron"—Seeking a fur country—Life in the canoe—A trusted
trader—Sheaves of letters —A find in Edinburgh—Faithful
correspondents—The Bishop's cask of wine—Red River, a "land of
Canaan"—Governor Simpson's letters—The gigantic Archdeacon
writes—"MacArgrave's" promotion—Kindly Sieveright—Traders and
CHAPTER XXXI. - THE VOYAGEURS FROM
MONTREAL. Lachine, the fur traders' Mecca—The departure—The
flowing bowl—The canoe brigade—The voyageurs' song—"En roulant
ma boule"—Village of St. Anne's—Legend of the church—The
sailors' guardian—Origin of "Canadian Boat Song"—A loud
invocation—"A la Claire Fontaine " - "Sing, nightingale"—At the
rapids—The ominous crosses - "Lament of Cadieux"—A lonely maiden
sits—The Wendigo—Home of the Ermatingers—A very old canal—The
rugged coast—Fort William reached—A famous gathering—The joyous
CHAPTER XXXII. - EXPLORERS IN THE FAR
NORTH. The North-West Passage again—Lieutenant John
Franklin's land expedition—Two lonely winters—Hearne's mistake
corrected—Franklin's second journey—Arctic sea coast
explored—Franklin knighted—Captain John Ross by sea—Discovers
magnetic pole—Magnetic needle nearly perpendicular—Back seeks
for Ross—Dease and Simpson sent by Hudson's Bay Company to
explore—Sir John in Erebus and Terror—The Paleocrystic
Sea—Franklin never returns—Lady Franklin's devotion—The historic
search—Dr. Rae secures relics—Captain McClintock finds the cairn
and written record—Advantages of the search.
CHAPTER XXXIII. - EXPEDITIONS TO THE
FRONTIER OF THE FUR COUNTRY. disputed boundary—Sources of the
Mississippi—The fur traders push southward—Expedition up the
Missouri—Lewis and Clark meet Nor'-Wcsters—Claim of United
States made—Sad death of Lewis—Lieutenant Pike's journey—Pike
meets fur traders—Cautious Dakotas—Treaty with Chippewas—Violent
death—Long and Keating fix 49 deg. N.—Visit Fort Garry—Follow
old fur traders' route—An erratic Italian—Strange
adventures—Almost finds source—Beltrami County—Cass and
Schoolcraft fail —Schoolcraft afterwards succeeds—Lake
Itasca—Curious origin of name—The source determined.
CHAPTER XXXIV. - FAMOUS JOURNEYS IN
RUPERT'S LAND. Fascination of an unknown land—Adventure,
science, or gain —Lieutenant Lefroy's magnetic survey—Hudson's
Bay Company assists—Winters at Fort Chipewyan—First scientific
visit to Peace River—Notes lost—Not "gratuitous canoe
conveyance"—Captain Palliser and Lieutenant Hector—Journey
through Rupert's Land—Rocky Mountain passes—On to the coast—A
successful expedition—Hind and Dawson—To spy out the land for
Canada—The fertile belt—Hind's description good—Milton and
Cheadle—Winter on the Saskatchewan—Reach Pacific Ocean in a
pitiable condition—Captain Butler—The horse Blackie and dog
"Cerf Vola "—Fleming and Grant—"Ocean to ocean" -"Land fitted
for a healthy and hardy race"—Waggon road and railway.
CHAPTER XXXV. - RED RIVER SETTLEMENT.
1817-1846. Chiefly Scottish and French settlers—Many
hardships—Grasshoppers—Yellow Head—"Gouverneur Sauterelle"—Swiss
settlers—Remarkable parchment—Captain Bulger, a military
governor—Indian troubles—Donald McKenzie, a fur trader
governor—Many projects fail—The flood—Plenty follows—Social
condition—Lower Fort built—Upper Fort Garry—Council of
Assiniboia—The settlement organized—Duncan Finlayson
governor—English farmers—Governor Christie—Serious epidemic—A
regiment of regulars—The unfortunate major—The people restless.
CHAPTER XXXVI. - THE PRAIRIES: SLEDGE,
KEEL, WHEEL, CAYUSE, CHASE. Picturesque life—The prairie
hunters and traders—Gailycaparisoned dog trains—The great winter
packets—Joy in the lonely forts—The summer trade—The York boat
brigade—Expert voyageurs—The famous Red River cartShagganappe
ponies—The screeching train—Tripping—The western cayuse—The
great buffalo hunt—Warden of the plains—Pemmican and fat—The
return in triumph.
CHAPTER XXXVII. - LIFE ON THE SHORES OF
HUDSON BAY AND LABRADOR. The bleak shores unprogressive—Now
as at the beginning—York Factory—Description of Ballantyne—The
weather—Summer comes with a rush—Picking up subsistence—The
Indian trade--Inhospitable Labrador—Establishment of Ungava
Bay—McLean at Fort Chimo—Herds of cariboo - Eskimo
rafts—"Shadowy Tartarus"—The king's domainsMingan—Mackenzie--The
gulf settlements—The Moravians—Their four missions—Rigolette,
the chief trading post—A school for developing character—Chief
Factor Donald A. Smith—Journeys along the coast—A barren shore.
CHAPTER XXXVIII. - ATHABASCA, MACKENZIE
RIVER, AND THE YUKON. Peter Pond reaches Athabasca River—Port
Chipewyan established—Starting point of Alexander Mackenzie—The
Athabasca Library—The Hudson's Bay Company roused—Conflict at
Fort Wedderburn—Suffering—The dash up the Peace River—Fort
Dunvegan—Northern extension—Fort Resolution—Fort Providence—The
great river occupied—Loss of life—Fort Simpson, the centre—Fort
Reliance—Herds of cariboo—Fort Norman built—Fort Good Hope—The
Northern Rockies—The Yukon reached and occupied—The fierce Liard
River—Fort Halkett in the Mountains —Robert Campbell comes to
the Stikine—Discovers the Upper Yukon—His great fame—The
districts—Steamers on the water stretches.
CHAPTER XXXIX. - ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE.
Extension of trade in New Caledonia—The Western Department—Fort
Vancouver built—Governor's residence and Bachelors' Hall—Fort
Colville—James Douglas, a man of note--A dignified official—An
Indian rising—A brave woman—The fertile Columbia
Valley—Finlayson, a man of action—Russian fur traders—Treaty of
Alaska—Lease of Alaska to the Hudson's Bay Company—Port
Langley—The great farm—Black at Kamloops—Fur trader v.
botanist—"No soul above a beaver's skin"—A tragic death—Chief
Nicola's eloquence—A murderer's fate.
CHAPTER XL - FROM OREGON TO VANCOUVER
ISLAND. Fort Vancouver on American soil—Chief Factor Douglas
chooses a new site—Young McLoughlin killed—Liquor selling
prohibited—Dealing with the Songhies—A Jesuit father—Fort
Victoria—Finlayson's skill—Chinook jargon—The brothers
Ermatinger—A fur-trading Junius—"Fifty-four, forty, or
fight"—Oregon Treaty—Hudson's Bay Company indemnified—The waggon
road—A colony established—First governor—Gold fever—British
Columbia—Fort Simpson—Hudson's Bay Company in the interior—The
forts—A group of worthies—Service to Britain—The coast becomes
CHAPTER XLI. - PRO GLORIA DEl. A vast
region—First spiritual adviser—A locum Ienen8—Two French
Canadian priests—St. Boniface founded—Missionary zeal in
Mackenzie River district—Red River parishes—The great Archbishop
Taché—John West—Archdeacon Cochrane, the founder—John
McCallum—Bishop Anderson—English Missionary Societies—Archbishop
Machray—Indian Missions—John Black, the Presbyterian
apostle—Methodist Missions on Lake Winnipeg—The Cree
syllabic—Chaplain Staines—Bishop Bridge—Missionary
Duncan—Metlakahtla----Roman Catholic coast missions—Church of
England bishop--Diocese of New Westminster—Dr. Evans—Robert
CHAPTER XLII. - THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
AND THE INDIANS. Company's Indian policy—Character of
officers—A race of hunters—Plan of advances—Charges against the
Company - Liquor restriction - Capital punishment - Starving
Indians—Diseased and helpless—Education and religion—The age of
missions—Sturdy Saulteaux—The Muskegons - Wood Crees—Wandering
Plain Crees—The Chipewyans - Wild Assiniboines—Blackfoot
Indians—Polyglot coast tribes—Eskimos—No Indian war—No
police—Pliable and docile—Success of the Company.
CHAPTER XLIII. - UNREST IN RUPERT'S LAND.
1844-1869. Discontent on Red River—Queries to the Governor—A
courageous Recorder—Free Trade in furs held illegal
—Imprisonment--New land deed—Enormous freights—Petty
revenge—Turbulent pensioners—Heart burnings Heroic
Isbister—Half-breed memorial—Mr. Beaver's letter —Hudson's Bay
Company notified—Lord Elgin's reply—Voluminous
correspondence—Company's full answer—Colonel Crof ton's
statement—Major Caldwell, a partisan—French petition—Nearly a
thousand signatures—Love, a factor—The elder iRiel—A court
scene—Violence—"Vive la liberté"—The Recorder checked—A new
judge—Unruly Corbett—The prison broken—Another rescue—A valiant
doctor—A Red River Nestor.
CHAPTER XLIV. - CANADA COVETS THE HUDSON'S
BAY TERRITORY. Renewal of licence—Labouchere's letter—Canada
claims to Pacific Ocean—Commissioner Chief-Justice Draper—Rests
on Quebec Act, 1774—Quebec overlaps Indian territories—Company
loses Vancouver Island—Cauchon's memorandum —Committee of
1857—Company on trial—A brilliant committee—Four hundred folios
of evidence—To transfer Red River and Saskatchewan—Death of Sir
George—Governor Dallas--A cunning scheme—Secret negotiations—The
Watkin Company floated—Angry winterers—Dallas's soothing
circular—The old order still—Ermatinger's letters —McDougall's
resolutions—Cartier and McDougall as delegates—Company accepts
CHAPTER XLV. - TROUBLES OF THE TRANSFER OF
RUPERT'S LAND. Transfer Act passed—A moribund Government—The
Canadian surveying party—Causes of the rebellion—Turbulent
Metis—American interference—Disloyal ecclesiastics "Governor"
McDougall—Riel and his rebel band—A blameworthy governor—The
"blawsted fence"—Seizure of Fort Garry—Riel's ambitions—Loyal
rising—Three wise men from the East--The New Nation—A winter
meeting —Bill of Rights—A Canadian shot—The Wolseley
expedition—Three renegades slink away—The end of Company
rule—The new Province of Manitoba.
CHAPTER XLVI. - PRESENT STATUS OF THE
COMPANY. A great land company—Fort Garry dismantled—The new
buildings—New v. old—New life in the Company—Palmy days are
recalled—Governors of ability—The present distinguished
Governor—Vaster operations—Its eye not dimmed.
CHAPTER XLVII. - THE FUTURE OF THE CANADIAN
WEST. The Greater Canada—Wide wheat fields—Vast pasture
lands Huronian mines—The Kootenay riches—Yukon nuggets
—Forests—Iron and coal—Fisheries—Two great cities—Towns and
villages—Anglo-Saxon institutions—The great outlook.
Diary of Nicholas Garry
Deputy-Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1822-1835. A
detailed narrative of his travels in the Northwest Territories
of British North America in 1821. With a portrait of Mr. Garry
and other illustrations. (pdf)
Narrative of a Journey round the World
During the years 1841 and 1842 by Sir George Simpson,
Governor-In-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company Territories in
North America in two volumes (1847) Volume 1 |
The Great Fur Lands
Or Sketches of Life in the Hudson's Bay Territory by H. M.
Robinson (1879) (pdf)
Or, Everyday Life in North America by Robert Michael Ballantyne
In venturing to bring out the present work, the author rests his
hope of its being in any measure favourably received, entirely
upon the fact, that the subject of which it treats is,
comparatively speaking, a new one. It is true that others have
slightly sketched the same subject, in books upon Arctic
discovery, and in works of general information; but the very
nature of these publications prohibits their entering into a
lengthened or minute description of every-day life, which is the
leading feature of the present work.
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